How to format your references using the Clinical Biomechanics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Biomechanics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sheng, P., 2006. Applied physics. Waves on the horizon. Science 313, 1399–1400.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gibson, M.C., Perrimon, N., 2005. Extrusion and death of DPP/BMP-compromised epithelial cells in the developing Drosophila wing. Science 307, 1785–1789.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sokolov, S., Scheuer, T., Catterall, W.A., 2007. Gating pore current in an inherited ion channelopathy. Nature 446, 76–78.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Xin, L., Liu, Y., Li, B., Zhou, X., Shen, H., Zhao, W., Liang, C., 2014. Constructing hierarchical submicrotubes from interconnected TiO₂ nanocrystals for high reversible capacity and long-life lithium-ion batteries. Sci. Rep. 4, 4479.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Primak, S.L., Kontorovich, V., 2011. Wireless Multi-Antenna Channels. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Borea, P.A. (Ed.), 2010. A3 Adenosine Receptors from Cell Biology to Pharmacology and Therapeutics. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Bjerring, P., Christiansen, K., 2011. Facial Rejuvenation and Other Clinical Applications of Intense Pulsed Light, in: Raulin, C., Karsai, S. (Eds.), Laser and IPL Technology in Dermatology and Aesthetic Medicine. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 61–82.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Biomechanics.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2014. Fold A Piece Of Paper In Half 103 Times And It Will Be As Thick As The UNIVERSE [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1978. Continuing Educational Programs for Scientists and Engineers (No. PSAD-78-75). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jones, E., 2019. Leadership Practices in K-12 Public Schools for Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Students: A Qualitative Study (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
McKINLEY, J.C., Jr, 2017. Driver in Deadly Times Square Crash Is Charged With Murder. New York Times A20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sheng, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Gibson and Perrimon, 2005; Sheng, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gibson and Perrimon, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Xin et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Biomechanics
AbbreviationClin. Biomech. (Bristol, Avon)
ISSN (print)0268-0033
Orthopedics and Sports Medicine

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