How to format your references using the Clinical Biomechanics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Biomechanics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Service, R.F., 2003. Condensed matter physics. Inverse Doppler demonstration ends a 60-year quest. Science 302, 1489.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sanguinetti, M.C., Tristani-Firouzi, M., 2006. hERG potassium channels and cardiac arrhythmia. Nature 440, 463–469.
A journal article with 3 authors
Marimuthu, A., Zhang, J., Linic, S., 2013. Tuning selectivity in propylene epoxidation by plasmon mediated photo-switching of Cu oxidation state. Science 339, 1590–1593.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Mejía-León, M.E., Petrosino, J.F., Ajami, N.J., Domínguez-Bello, M.G., de la Barca, A.M.C., 2014. Fecal microbiota imbalance in Mexican children with type 1 diabetes. Sci. Rep. 4, 3814.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ibrahim, M.A., 2011. Disturbance Analysis for Power Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Pignataro, M., Gioncu, V. (Eds.), 2005. Phenomenological and Mathematical Modelling of Structural Instabilities, CISM International Centre for Mechanical Sciences, Courses and Lectures. Springer, Vienna.
A chapter in an edited book
Irving, T., 2015. Which Voice? Which Working Class?, in: Michell, D., Wilson, J.Z., Archer, V. (Eds.), Bread and Roses: Voices of Australian Academics from the Working Class. SensePublishers, Rotterdam, pp. 29–37.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Biomechanics.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Monster Black Hole Awakens After 26 Years of Slumber [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1990. Federal Internal Control and Financial Management Systems: Major Reform Efforts Are Needed (No. T-AFMD-90-14). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gillan-Sanderson, N.A., 2012. A Study of the Effect of Additional Reading Assistance on Student Achievement (Doctoral dissertation). Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Stuart, C., Monkovic, T., Bretherton, G., 2010. 1,000 Yards Later, It’s O.K. to Ask, Who Is That Guy? New York Times B14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Service, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Sanguinetti and Tristani-Firouzi, 2006; Service, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sanguinetti and Tristani-Firouzi, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Mejía-León et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Biomechanics
AbbreviationClin. Biomech. (Bristol, Avon)
ISSN (print)0268-0033
Orthopedics and Sports Medicine

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