How to format your references using the Clinical Biomechanics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Biomechanics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zhang, C.-T., 2013. A novel triangle mapping technique to study the h-index based citation distribution. Sci. Rep. 3, 1023.
A journal article with 2 authors
Neuman, Y., Cohen, Y., 2014. A vectorial semantics approach to personality assessment. Sci. Rep. 4, 4761.
A journal article with 3 authors
Karakas, E., Simorowski, N., Furukawa, H., 2011. Subunit arrangement and phenylethanolamine binding in GluN1/GluN2B NMDA receptors. Nature 475, 249–253.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Himler, A.G., Adachi-Hagimori, T., Bergen, J.E., Kozuch, A., Kelly, S.E., Tabashnik, B.E., Chiel, E., Duckworth, V.E., Dennehy, T.J., Zchori-Fein, E., Hunter, M.S., 2011. Rapid spread of a bacterial symbiont in an invasive whitefly is driven by fitness benefits and female bias. Science 332, 254–256.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hites, R.A., Raff, J.D., 2012. Elements of Environmental Chemistry. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Händle, F. (Ed.), 2007. Extrusion in Ceramics, 1st ed, Engineering Materials and Processes. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Papadimitriou, I., 2016. Lectures on Holographic Renormalization, in: Kallosh, R., Orazi, E. (Eds.), Theoretical Frontiers in Black Holes and Cosmology: Theoretical Perspective in High Energy Physics, Springer Proceedings in Physics. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 131–181.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Biomechanics.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. Meet Phronima, The Barrel-Riding Parasite That Inspired The Movie Alien [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1995. Teacher Training: Status and Participants’ Views of Delta Teachers Academy (No. RCED-95-208). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tromp, M., 2015. Bayesian monitoring of clinical trials: Examples using conjugate priors (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S., 2008. Kept From TV, Report on Moscow Finds an Audience. New York Times C5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Zhang, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Neuman and Cohen, 2014; Zhang, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Neuman and Cohen, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Himler et al., 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Biomechanics
AbbreviationClin. Biomech. (Bristol, Avon)
ISSN (print)0268-0033
Orthopedics and Sports Medicine

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