How to format your references using the Clinical Biomechanics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Biomechanics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Yang, X., 2004. An embryonic nation. Nature 428, 210–212.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bloom, K., Joglekar, A., 2010. Towards building a chromosome segregation machine. Nature 463, 446–456.
A journal article with 3 authors
He, D.Z.Z., Jia, S., Dallos, P., 2004. Mechanoelectrical transduction of adult outer hair cells studied in a gerbil hemicochlea. Nature 429, 766–770.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Petrelli, A., Gilestro, G.F., Lanzardo, S., Comoglio, P.M., Migone, N., Giordano, S., 2002. The endophilin-CIN85-Cbl complex mediates ligand-dependent downregulation of c-Met. Nature 416, 187–190.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Balmori, D., 2014. Drawing and Reinventing Landscape. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Huang, D.-S., Gan, Y., Gupta, P., Gromiha, M.M. (Eds.), 2012. Advanced Intelligent Computing Theories and Applications. With Aspects of Artificial Intelligence: 7th International Conference, ICIC 2011, Zhengzhou, China, August 11-14, 2011, Revised Selected Papers, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Lee, Y.K., Knežević, M., Verbauwhede, I.M.R., 2010. Hardware design for Hash functions, in: Verbauwhede, I.M.R. (Ed.), Secure Integrated Circuits and Systems, Integrated Circuits and Systems. Springer US, Boston, MA, pp. 79–104.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Biomechanics.

Blog post
Davis, J., 2015. Rare Night Parrot Caught And Tagged For The First Time In One Hundred Years [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/rare-night-parrot-thought-have-been-extinct-one-hundred-years-caught-and-tagged/ (accessed 10.30.18).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1993. Poor Preschool-Aged Children: Numbers Increase but Most Not in Preschool (No. HRD-93-111BR). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Porter, L.A., 2010. Defense Support of Civilian Authorities (DSCA): What emergency managers need to know (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gorman, J., 2017. One-Celled Hunter With Impressive Weapon. New York Times D3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Yang, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Bloom and Joglekar, 2010; Yang, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bloom and Joglekar, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Petrelli et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Biomechanics
AbbreviationClin. Biomech. (Bristol, Avon)
ISSN (print)0268-0033
ScopeBiophysics
Orthopedics and Sports Medicine

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