How to format your references using the Global Social Welfare citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Global Social Welfare. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bobbert, P. A. (2014). Applied physics. Manipulating spin in organic spintronics. Science (New York, N.Y.), 345(6203), 1450–1451.
A journal article with 2 authors
Denef, V. J., & Banfield, J. F. (2012). In situ evolutionary rate measurements show ecological success of recently emerged bacterial hybrids. Science (New York, N.Y.), 336(6080), 462–466.
A journal article with 3 authors
Brechbühl, J., Klaey, M., & Broillet, M.-C. (2008). Grueneberg ganglion cells mediate alarm pheromone detection in mice. Science (New York, N.Y.), 321(5892), 1092–1095.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Tomoda, M., Dehoux, T., Iwasaki, Y., Matsuda, O., Gusev, V. E., & Wright, O. B. (2014). Nanoscale mechanical contacts mapped by ultrashort time-scale electron transport. Scientific reports, 4, 4790.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cerroni, L., Gatter, K., & Kerl, H. (2009). Skin Lymphoma: The Illustrated Guide. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Rotkin, S. V., & Subramoney, S. (Eds.). (2005). Applied Physics of Carbon Nanotubes: Fundamentals of Theory, Optics and Transport Devices. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Grzegorzewski, P. (2010). Algorithms for Trapezoidal Approximations of Fuzzy Numbers Preserving the Expected Interval. In B. Bouchon-Meunier, L. Magdalena, M. Ojeda-Aciego, J.-L. Verdegay, & R. R. Yager (Eds.), Foundations of Reasoning under Uncertainty (pp. 85–98). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Global Social Welfare.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. (2016, September 28). New Water Plumes From Jupiter’s Moon Europa Raise Hopes Of Detecting Microbial Life. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2016). Freight Rail Pricing: Contracts Provide Shippers and Railroads Flexibility, but High Rates Concern Some Shippers (No. GAO-17-166). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Vargo, G. (2010). Social protest and the novel: Chartism, the radical press, and early Victorian fiction (Doctoral dissertation). Columbia University, New York, NY.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Levy, C. J., & Kishkovsky, S. (2008, June 17). Russian Strikes Back at BP’s Chairman, as Oil Dispute Flares Again. New York Times, p. C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bobbert 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Bobbert 2014; Denef and Banfield 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Denef and Banfield 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Tomoda et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleGlobal Social Welfare
AbbreviationGlob. Soc. Welf.
ISSN (online)2196-8799

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