How to format your references using the Global Social Welfare citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Global Social Welfare. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schiermeier, Q. (2000). German Greens go cold on nuclear fusion. Nature, 405(6783), 107.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rothman, D. H., & Forney, D. C. (2007). Physical model for the decay and preservation of marine organic carbon. Science (New York, N.Y.), 316(5829), 1325–1328.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lederer, W. J., Hagen, B. M., & Zhao, G. (2012). Cell biology. Superresolution subspace signaling. Science (New York, N.Y.), 336(6081), 546–547.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Elowitz, M. B., Levine, A. J., Siggia, E. D., & Swain, P. S. (2002). Stochastic gene expression in a single cell. Science (New York, N.Y.), 297(5584), 1183–1186.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Arifin, S. M. N., Madey, G. R., & Collins, F. H. (2016). Spatial Agent-Based Simulation Modeling in Public Health. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Dorsman, A., Simpson, J. L., & Westerman, W. (Eds.). (2013). Energy Economics and Financial Markets. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Basso, D., Pesarin, F., Salmaso, L., & Solari, A. (2009). Nonparametric One-Way ANOVA. In L. Salmaso, F. Pesarin, & D. Basso (Eds.), Permutation Tests for Stochastic Ordering and ANOVA: Theory and Applications with R (pp. 105–132). New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Global Social Welfare.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2016, May 5). Cherry Concentrate Can Lower Blood Pressure As Much As Drugs, Our Study Finds. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1995). Multiple Teacher Training Programs: Information on Budgets, Services, and Target Groups (No. HEHS-95-71FS). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
DeLima, L. E. (2017). Implementing an Innovative Educational Program in an Era of Accountability: An Interview Study of the Expeditionary Learning Program (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K. (2000, July 23). A Mister Softee Who Found His Calling. New York Times, p. 144.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schiermeier 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Rothman and Forney 2007; Schiermeier 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rothman and Forney 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Elowitz et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleGlobal Social Welfare
AbbreviationGlob. Soc. Welf.
ISSN (online)2196-8799

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