How to format your references using the Global Social Welfare citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Global Social Welfare. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Alexander, R. M. (2001). Design by numbers. Nature, 412(6847), 591.
A journal article with 2 authors
Huppert, H. E., & Woods, A. W. (2002). The role of volatiles in magma chamber dynamics. Nature, 420(6915), 493–495.
A journal article with 3 authors
Müller, K., Fedosov, D. A., & Gompper, G. (2014). Margination of micro- and nano-particles in blood flow and its effect on drug delivery. Scientific reports, 4, 4871.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Halic, M., Blau, M., Becker, T., Mielke, T., Pool, M. R., Wild, K., et al. (2006). Following the signal sequence from ribosomal tunnel exit to signal recognition particle. Nature, 444(7118), 507–511.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Henriksen, R. N. (2015). Scale Invariance. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Helmis, C. G., & Nastos, P. T. (Eds.). (2013). Advances in Meteorology, Climatology and Atmospheric Physics. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Madden, R. (2014). Self-Consciousness and Its Linguistic Expression. In T.-W. Hung (Ed.), Communicative Action: Selected Papers of the 2013 IEAS Conference on Language and Action (pp. 75–92). Singapore: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Global Social Welfare.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2013, December 3). Second Set of Vocal Cords Discovered in Koalas. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1990). Management Improvements Essential for Key Automated Systems at the Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service (No. T-IMTEC-90-13). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cannon, M. P. (2013). Cenozoic kinematics of the Little Pine fault, Santa Maria Basin, California (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
de la MERCED, M. J., & Sorkin, A. R. (2017, July 31). Sale of D.C. United Is Said to Be Considered. New York Times, p. D4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Alexander 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Alexander 2001; Huppert and Woods 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Huppert and Woods 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Halic et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleGlobal Social Welfare
AbbreviationGlob. Soc. Welf.
ISSN (online)2196-8799

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