How to format your references using the Global Social Welfare citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Global Social Welfare. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dalton, R. (2002). Misconduct: the stars who fell to earth. Nature, 420(6917), 728–729.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sherwood, S., & Fu, Q. (2014). Climate change. A drier future? Science (New York, N.Y.), 343(6172), 737–739.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nishimura, E. K., Granter, S. R., & Fisher, D. E. (2005). Mechanisms of hair graying: incomplete melanocyte stem cell maintenance in the niche. Science (New York, N.Y.), 307(5710), 720–724.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Chambouvet, A., Morin, P., Marie, D., & Guillou, L. (2008). Control of toxic marine dinoflagellate blooms by serial parasitic killers. Science (New York, N.Y.), 322(5905), 1254–1257.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gray, R. (2011). A History of American Literature. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Montanari, U., Sannella, D., & Bruni, R. (Eds.). (2007). Trustworthy Global Computing: Second Symposium, TGC 2006, Lucca, Italy, November 7-9, 2006, Revised Selected Papers (Vol. 4661). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Bedinger, P. A., & Fowler, J. E. (2009). The Maize Male Gametophyte. In J. L. Bennetzen & S. C. Hake (Eds.), Handbook of Maize: Its Biology (pp. 57–77). New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Global Social Welfare.

Blog post
Taub, B. (2016, November 22). Incredible Photos Show Uncontacted Amazonian Tribe Living Perilously Close To Illegal Miners. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2004). Spectrum Management: Better Knowledge Needed to Take Advantage of Technologies That May Improve Spectrum Efficiency (No. GAO-04-666). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mier, L. M. (2012). Monitoring Electron Transfer Reactions using Ultrafast UV-Visible and Infrared Spectroscopy (Doctoral dissertation). Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, R. W. (1996, February 1). Handcuffing the Police. New York Times, p. A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dalton 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Dalton 2002; Sherwood and Fu 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sherwood and Fu 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Chambouvet et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleGlobal Social Welfare
AbbreviationGlob. Soc. Welf.
ISSN (online)2196-8799

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