How to format your references using the Journal of Pure and Applied Algebra citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Pure and Applied Algebra. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J. Giles, Attosecond science: the fast show, Nature. 420 (2002) 737.
A journal article with 2 authors
E. Thébault, C. Fontaine, Stability of ecological communities and the architecture of mutualistic and trophic networks, Science. 329 (2010) 853–856.
A journal article with 3 authors
Z. Su, W. Huang, X. Gu, Comment on “Positive selection of tyrosine loss in metazoan evolution,” Science. 332 (2011) 917; author reply 917.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Q.D. Gibson, D. Evtushinsky, A.N. Yaresko, V.B. Zabolotnyy, M.N. Ali, M.K. Fuccillo, J. Van den Brink, B. Büchner, R.J. Cava, S.V. Borisenko, Quasi one dimensional Dirac electrons on the surface of Ru₂Sn₃, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 5168.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
C. Wren, Concise Guide to Pediatric Arrhythmias, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK, 2011.
An edited book
D.K. Chatterjee, ed., Encyclopedia of Global Justice, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
N. Duncan, B. Bowman, Liberating South African Psychology: The Legacy of Racism and the Pursuit of Representative Knowledge Production, in: C.C. Sonn, M. Montero (Eds.), Psychology of Liberation: Theory and Applications, Springer, New York, NY, 2009: pp. 93–113.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Pure and Applied Algebra.

Blog post
R. Andrews, Global Warming Was A Fifth Worse In The Last 150 Years Than Historical Records Show, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Outlay Savings From Program Reductions and Terminations, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1973.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Y. Yang, Statistical Analysis of cDNA Microarrays: A Systematic Approach to Identify MTF-1 Mediated Gene Expression Profile in Response to Cadmium, Doctoral dissertation, University of Cincinnati, 2003.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
S. Kercher, Modern Help for the Brokenhearted? It’s Online, New York Times. (2017) D3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Pure and Applied Algebra
AbbreviationJ. Pure Appl. Algebra
ISSN (print)0022-4049
ScopeAlgebra and Number Theory

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