How to format your references using the Journal of Pure and Applied Algebra citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Pure and Applied Algebra. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
N. Mackman, Triggers, targets and treatments for thrombosis, Nature. 451 (2008) 914–918.
A journal article with 2 authors
P.A. Stott, P.W. Thorne, How best to log local temperatures?, Nature. 465 (2010) 158–159.
A journal article with 3 authors
K. Hayashi, S.M.C. de Sousa Lopes, M.A. Surani, Germ cell specification in mice, Science. 316 (2007) 394–396.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
L.I. Zhang, A.Y.Y. Tan, C.E. Schreiner, M.M. Merzenich, Topography and synaptic shaping of direction selectivity in primary auditory cortex, Nature. 424 (2003) 201–205.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
A. Pérez, Mobile Networks Architecture, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ USA, 2013.
An edited book
S.S. Dash, M.A. Bhaskar, B.K. Panigrahi, S. Das, eds., Artificial Intelligence and Evolutionary Computations in Engineering Systems: Proceedings of ICAIECES 2015, 1st ed. 2016, Springer India, New Delhi, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
P. Ghosh, R. Dey, K. Roy, D. Bhattacharjee, M. Nashipuri, Microscopic Image Segmentation Using Hybrid Technique for Dengue Prediction, in: S. Bhattacharyya, P. Dutta, S. De, G. Klepac (Eds.), Hybrid Soft Computing for Image Segmentation, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016: pp. 109–136.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Pure and Applied Algebra.

Blog post
J. Fang, Robotic Arms and Hands That Can Feel, IFLScience. (2014).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Transportation Security Administration’s Suspension of the Butane Lighter Ban Onboard Commercial Aircraft, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2008.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J.A. Beard, Evidence of Leadership Competencies in the Journal of Mary Easton Sibley, a Pioneering 19th Century Women’s College Founder, Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Williams, Going After Big Prey, New York Times. (2017) BR6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Pure and Applied Algebra
AbbreviationJ. Pure Appl. Algebra
ISSN (print)0022-4049
ScopeAlgebra and Number Theory

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