How to format your references using the Journal of Pure and Applied Algebra citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Pure and Applied Algebra. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
G. McFiggans, Atmospheric science: Involatile particles from rapid oxidation, Nature. 506 (2014) 442–443.
A journal article with 2 authors
B.C. Sheldon, M. Mangel, Behavioural ecology: Love thy neighbour, Nature. 512 (2014) 381–382.
A journal article with 3 authors
R. Shema, T.C. Sacktor, Y. Dudai, Rapid erasure of long-term memory associations in the cortex by an inhibitor of PKM zeta, Science. 317 (2007) 951–953.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
I. Wapinski, A. Pfeffer, N. Friedman, A. Regev, Natural history and evolutionary principles of gene duplication in fungi, Nature. 449 (2007) 54–61.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
M. Clark, Understanding Diabetes, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2006.
An edited book
T.R. Roth-Berghofer, M.H. Göker, H.A. Güvenir, eds., Advances in Case-Based Reasoning: 8th European Conference, ECCBR 2006 Fethiye, Turkey, September 4-7, 2006 Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
D. Boxer, Discourse Issues in Cross-Cultural Pragmatics: Educating the Community, in: F.M. Hult (Ed.), Directions and Prospects for Educational Linguistics, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2010: pp. 49–61.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Pure and Applied Algebra.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Autistic Kids Low On Vital Social Hormone, Study Suggests, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, VA Education Benefits: Actions Taken, but Outreach and Oversight Could Be Improved, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2011.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
P. Butts, Green Roof Vegetable Production in Three Different Growth Media, Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J.R. Quain, The Light-Sensing Technology Carmakers Are Clamoring For, New York Times. (2017) B5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Pure and Applied Algebra
AbbreviationJ. Pure Appl. Algebra
ISSN (print)0022-4049
ScopeAlgebra and Number Theory

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