How to format your references using the Global Biogeochemical Cycles citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Global Biogeochemical Cycles. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pain, E. (2008). Science careers. Sustaining forests in a changing world. Science (New York, N.Y.), 320(5882), 1514–1517.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fraser, P., & Bickmore, W. (2007). Nuclear organization of the genome and the potential for gene regulation. Nature, 447(7143), 413–417.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cobaleda, C., Jochum, W., & Busslinger, M. (2007). Conversion of mature B cells into T cells by dedifferentiation to uncommitted progenitors. Nature, 449(7161), 473–477.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Liu, D., Zhang, Y., Wen, J., Chen, Z., Wei, D., Hu, X., et al. (2014). Diffraction interference induced superfocusing in nonlinear Talbot effect. Scientific Reports, 4, 6134.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Shinohara, H., & Tagmatarchis, N. (2015). Endohedral Metallofullerenes. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Athanas, P., Pnevmatikatos, D., & Sklavos, N. (Eds.). (2013). Embedded Systems Design with FPGAs. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Sikora, M. J., & Jericho, B. (2015). A Brief Treatise on the Area Under the Curve. In C. Marcucci, M. P. Hutchens, E. D. Wittwer, T. N. Weingarten, J. Sprung, W. T. Nicholson, et al. (Eds.), A Case Approach to Perioperative Drug-Drug Interactions (pp. 23–25). New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Global Biogeochemical Cycles.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2016, May 12). Report Reveals 20% Of All Plants At Risk Of Extinction. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2006). No Child Left Behind Act: States Face Challenges Measuring Academic Growth That Education’s Initiatives May Help Address (No. GAO-06-661). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Al-Qazzaz, A. L. (2013). A kinetic study of the radiolytic degradation of phthalates in aqueous solutions (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Herrman, J. (2016, July 26). Mayer’s Media Problem at Yahoo Is Now Verizon’s. New York Times, p. B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Pain, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Fraser & Bickmore, 2007; Pain, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Fraser & Bickmore, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Liu et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleGlobal Biogeochemical Cycles
AbbreviationGlobal Biogeochem. Cycles
ISSN (print)0886-6236
ISSN (online)1944-9224
ScopeAtmospheric Science
General Environmental Science
Environmental Chemistry
Global and Planetary Change

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