How to format your references using the GLIA citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for GLIA. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brassard G. 2011. Quantum information: the conundrum of secure positioning. Nature 479:307–308.
A journal article with 2 authors
Xu D, Zhang Y. 2013. Ab Initio structure prediction for Escherichia coli: towards genome-wide protein structure modeling and fold assignment. Sci Rep 3:1895.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sasaki T, Matsuki N, Ikegaya Y. 2011. Action-potential modulation during axonal conduction. Science 331:599–601.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Im K, Jeong D, Hur J, Kim S-J, Hwang S, Jin KS, Park N, Kim K. 2013. Robust analysis of synthetic label-free DNA junctions in solution by X-ray scattering and molecular simulation. Sci Rep 3:3226.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Curry SH, Whelpton R. 2010. Drug Disposition and Pharmacokinetics. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Mathis K, Tor A eds. 2016. Nudging - Possibilities, Limitations and Applications in European Law and Economics. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Wilzeck C, Kelly DM. 2013. Avian Visual Pseudoneglect: The Effect of Age and Sex on Visuospatial Side Biases. In: Csermely D, Regolin L, editors. Behavioral Lateralization in Vertebrates: Two Sides of the Same Coin. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer. p 55–70.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for GLIA.

Blog post
Fang J. 2014. Fin cams reveal the secret lives of sharks. IFLScience [Internet]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1993. DOD Computer Contracting: Inadequate Management Wasted Millions of Dollars. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Grigoryan A. 2015. Feedback 2.0 in online writing instruction: Combining audio-visual and text-based commentary to enhance student revision and writing competency.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
STEVEN LEE MYERS; Sophia Kishkovsky contributed reporting for this article. 2005. Russian Court Delays Ruling In Fraud Trial Of Oil Tycoon. New York Times:A8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Brassard, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Brassard, 2011; Xu and Zhang, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Xu and Zhang, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Im et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleGLIA
ISSN (print)0894-1491
ISSN (online)1098-1136
ScopeCellular and Molecular Neuroscience

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