How to format your references using the Geriatric Nursing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geriatric Nursing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McCabe H. European public remains sceptical. Nature. 2000;405(6782):5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Schadt E, Chang R. Genetics. A GPS for navigating DNA. Science. 2012;337(6099):1179-1180.
A journal article with 3 authors
Duijn PAC, Kashirin V, Sloot PMA. The relative ineffectiveness of criminal network disruption. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4238.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Palombo M, Gabrielli A, Servedio VDP, Ruocco G, Capuani S. Structural disorder and anomalous diffusion in random packing of spheres. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2631.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Morris SA. Food and Package Engineering. Wiley-Blackwell; 2011.
An edited book
Palmer JS, ed. Pediatric Urology: A General Urologist’s Guide. Humana Press; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Barakat RR. Criteria for Using Intraperitoneal (IP) Chemotherapy for Advanced Ovarian Cancer. In: Alberts DS, Clouser MC, Hess LM, eds. Intraperitoneal Therapy for Ovarian Cancer. Springer; 2010:51-58.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geriatric Nursing.

Blog post
Andrew E. From Great Red Spot To Orange Pimple: Is Jupiter’s Superstorm Finally Blowing Over? IFLScience. Published October 20, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Joint Strike Fighter: DOD Plans to Enter Production before Testing Demonstrates Acceptable Performance. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2006.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Brown VA. Silenced Voices That Cry in the Night: The Transformative Experience of Spouses of Wounded Warriors - Is It Transformative Learning? A Phenomenological Study. Doctoral dissertation. George Washington University; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Branch J. Playing a Beautiful Game. New York Times. October 25, 2016:B8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleGeriatric Nursing
AbbreviationGeriatr. Nurs.
ISSN (print)0197-4572

Other styles