How to format your references using the Geriatric Mental Health Care citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geriatric Mental Health Care. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Boehm, C., 2012. Ancestral hierarchy and conflict. Science 336, 844–847.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kassiotis, G., O’Garra, A., 2008. Immunology. Immunity benefits from a little suppression. Science 320, 1168–1169.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kernbauer, E., Ding, Y., Cadwell, K., 2014. An enteric virus can replace the beneficial function of commensal bacteria. Nature 516, 94–98.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Jin, P., Kang, Z., Zhang, N., Du, G., Chen, J., 2014. High-yield novel leech hyaluronidase to expedite the preparation of specific hyaluronan oligomers. Sci. Rep. 4, 4471.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Graham, L., 2015. Internal Control Audit and Compliance. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Suzuki, K. (Ed.), 2014. Computational Intelligence in Biomedical Imaging. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Burnie, J.P., Matthews, R.C., 2006. HSP90: The Unsung Villain of Sepsis?, in: Vincent, J.-L. (Ed.), Yearbook of Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine, Yearbook of Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 35–44.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geriatric Mental Health Care.

Blog post
Andrews, R., 2016. World’s Oldest Orca Returns To Washington State Coast In “High Spirits” [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1994. Highway Contracting: Disadvantaged Business Program Meets Contract Goal, but Refinements Are Needed (No. RCED-94-168). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ramos, C.M., 2017. Is this working? A study on measuring the effectiveness of efforts to diversify the theatre management field (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G., 2011. For the Cardinals, a Classic Finish. New York Times D4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Boehm, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Boehm, 2012; Kassiotis and O’Garra, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kassiotis and O’Garra, 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Jin et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeriatric Mental Health Care
AbbreviationGeriatr. Ment. Health Care
ISSN (print)2212-9693
ScopeGeriatrics and Gerontology
Psychiatry and Mental health

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