How to format your references using the Geriatric Mental Health Care citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geriatric Mental Health Care. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wynne, C.D.L., 2004. Animal behaviour: fair refusal by capuchin monkeys. Nature 428, 140; discussion 140.
A journal article with 2 authors
Flanagan, J.R., Johansson, R.S., 2003. Action plans used in action observation. Nature 424, 769–771.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wolfe, J.M., Alvarez, G.A., Horowitz, T.S., 2000. Attention is fast but volition is slow. Nature 406, 691.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Alerstam, T., Gudmundsson, G.A., Green, M., Hedenstrom, A., 2001. Migration along orthodromic sun compass routes by arctic birds. Science 291, 300–303.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety, 2014. Guidelines for Determining the Probability of Ignition of a Released Flammable Mass. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Shen, B., 2014. Modelling Rock Fracturing Processes: A Fracture Mechanics Approach Using FRACOD. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Müldner, T., Miziołek, J.K., Corbin, T., 2015. Permutation Based XML Compression, in: Monfort, V., Krempels, K.-H. (Eds.), Web Information Systems and Technologies: 10th International Conference, WEBIST 2014, Barcelona, Spain, April 3-5, 2014, Revised Selected Papers, Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 63–78.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geriatric Mental Health Care.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Contractor Digs Up 14,000-Year-Old Mastodon Skeleton In Neighbor’s Backyard [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2005. NASA: Compliance with Cost Limits (No. GAO-05-492R). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gonzalez, S.N., 2010. Analysis of the impact of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act on California’s children: A report card on the CalWORKs program (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Davey, M., Walsh, M.W., 2014. Plan to Exit Bankruptcy Is Approved for Detroit. New York Times A11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wynne, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Flanagan and Johansson, 2003; Wynne, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Flanagan and Johansson, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Alerstam et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeriatric Mental Health Care
AbbreviationGeriatr. Ment. Health Care
ISSN (print)2212-9693
ScopeGeriatrics and Gerontology
Psychiatry and Mental health

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