How to format your references using the Gels citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Gels. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
May, R. Tony Blair’s Era: Good News, Bad News. Nature 2007, 447, 1053.
A journal article with 2 authors
Meharg, A.A.; Killham, K. Environment: A Pre-Industrial Source of Dioxins and Furans. Nature 2003, 421, 909–910.
A journal article with 3 authors
Batista, F.D.; Iber, D.; Neuberger, M.S. B Cells Acquire Antigen from Target Cells after Synapse Formation. Nature 2001, 411, 489–494.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Hinkov, V.; Haug, D.; Fauqué, B.; Bourges, P.; Sidis, Y.; Ivanov, A.; Bernhard, C.; Lin, C.T.; Keimer, B. Electronic Liquid Crystal State in the High-Temperature Superconductor YBa2Cu3O6.45. Science 2008, 319, 597–600.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Arduin, P.-E.; Grundstein, M.; Rosenthal-Sabroux, C. Information and Knowledge System; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2015; ISBN 9781119116165.
An edited book
Harvesting Operations in the Tropics; Sessions, J., Ed.; Tropical Forestry; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2007; ISBN 9783540463900.
A chapter in an edited book
Valderrama, A.; Brodersen, S.; Jørgensen, U. Environment and Sustainability Challenges to Engineering Education in Denmark. In Engineering Professionalism: Engineering Practices in Work and Education; Jørgensen, U., Brodersen, S., Eds.; SensePublishers: Rotterdam, 2016; pp. 61–83 ISBN 9789463007528.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Gels.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Take College And University Courses Online Completely Free Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Planning and Flexibility Are Key to Effectively Deploying Broadband Conduit through Federal Highway Projects; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2012;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Child, R.J. The Evolution of BARREN INFLORESCENCE1 and Related AUX/IAA Genes in Angiosperms. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Neroulias, N.; Saslow, L. School Districts Gird For Bad-News Budgets. New York Times 2009, WE1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleGels
ISSN (online)2310-2861

Other styles