How to format your references using the Gels citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Gels. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hafner, S.D. Ecology: Is fertilization efficiency misleading? Nature 2003, 422, 397–8; discussion 398.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bergquist, B.A.; Blum, J.D. Mass-dependent and -independent fractionation of hg isotopes by photoreduction in aquatic systems. Science 2007, 318, 417–420.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mohn, F.; Handler, D.; Brennecke, J. Noncoding RNA. piRNA-guided slicing specifies transcripts for Zucchini-dependent, phased piRNA biogenesis. Science 2015, 348, 812–817.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Lim, H.H.; Lenarz, M.; Joseph, G.; Lenarz, T. Frequency representation within the human brain: stability versus plasticity. Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 1474.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bonneau, D.; Fatu, A.; Souchet, D. Mixed Lubrication in Hydrodynamic Bearings; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2014; ISBN 9781119004905.
An edited book
Cultural Robotics: First International Workshop, CR 2015, Held as Part of IEEE RO-MAN 2015, Kobe, Japan, August 31, 2015. Revised Selected Papers; Koh, J.T.K.V., Dunstan, B.J., Silvera-Tawil, D., Velonaki, M., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; Vol. 9549; ISBN 9783319429441.
A chapter in an edited book
Pandolfi, C.; Mugnai, S.; Azzarello, E.; Masi, E.; Pollastri, S.; Mancuso, S. The Vibrating Probe Technique in the Study of Root Physiology Under Stress. In Measuring Roots: An Updated Approach; Mancuso, S., Ed.; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012; pp. 67–81 ISBN 9783642220661.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Gels.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Scientists Get Ready For The Latest Gravitational Wave Search Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Award of Indian Health Professions Scholarships; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1999;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dolan, D.J. Structural Evolution of Martin Crater Thaumasia Planum, Mars. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, L. Nassau to Transfer 9 Parks And 12 Roads to Town. New York Times 2007, 14LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,1].
This sentence cites four references [1,1,1,1].

About the journal

Full journal titleGels
ISSN (online)2310-2861

Other styles