How to format your references using the Gels citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Gels. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Le Quéré, C. Journal club. An oceanographer marvels at the good timing of shrimp. Nature 2009, 461, 1031.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hunt, K.K.; Vorburger, S.A. Tech.Sight. Gene therapy. Hurdles and hopes for cancer treatment. Science 2002, 297, 415–416.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ye, F.; Burns, M.J.; Naughton, M.J. Structured metal thin film as an asymmetric color filter: the forward and reverse plasmonic halos. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 7267.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Drdla, R.; Gassner, M.; Gingl, E.; Sandkühler, J. Induction of synaptic long-term potentiation after opioid withdrawal. Science 2009, 325, 207–210.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stewart, R. Plautus and Roman Slavery; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2012; ISBN 9781118524145.
An edited book
Modeling Phase Transitions in the Brain; Steyn-Ross, D.A., Steyn-Ross, M., Eds.; Springer Series in Computational Neuroscience; Springer: New York, NY, 2010; Vol. 4; ISBN 9781441907950.
A chapter in an edited book
Sano, Y.; Richards, L.N. Physical Health, Food Security, and Economic Well-Being: The Rural Perspective. In Rural Families and Work: Context and Problems; Bauer, J.W., Dolan, E.M., Eds.; International Series on Consumer Science; Springer: New York, NY, 2011; pp. 77–98 ISBN 9781461403814.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Gels.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Kepler-78b: a lava world that ‘shouldn’t exist’ Available online:‘shouldnt-exist’/ (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Federal Library Support Programs: Progress and Problems; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1974;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Espinoza, M. A Latina’s educational attainment and her observations of foster youth’s educational struggles: A narrative. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, C. Facebook Status? In Town and Wondering What to Do. New York Times 2009, F5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleGels
ISSN (online)2310-2861

Other styles