How to format your references using the Gels citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Gels. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Trainor, P. Development. The Bills of Qucks and Duails. Science 2003, 299, 523–524.
A journal article with 2 authors
Orlando, L.; Willerslev, E. Evolution. An Epigenetic Window into the Past? Science 2014, 345, 511–512.
A journal article with 3 authors
Agathon, A.; Thisse, C.; Thisse, B. The Molecular Nature of the Zebrafish Tail Organizer. Nature 2003, 424, 448–452.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Yan, H.; Yang, F.; Pan, D.; Lin, Y.; Hohman, J.N.; Solis-Ibarra, D.; Li, F.H.; Dahl, J.E.P.; Carlson, R.M.K.; Tkachenko, B.A.; et al. Sterically Controlled Mechanochemistry under Hydrostatic Pressure. Nature 2018, 554, 505–510.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Storey, I.C.; Allan, A. A Guide to Ancient Greek Drama; Blackwell Publishing Ltd: Oxford, UK, 2008; ISBN 9780470776209.
An edited book
Current Topics in Complement; Lambris, J.D., Ed.; Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology; Springer US: Boston, MA, 2006; Vol. 586; ISBN 9780387322315.
A chapter in an edited book
Zigmond, N.; Kloo, A.; Lemons, C.J. IEP Team Decision-Making for More Inclusive Assessments: Policies, Percentages, and Personal Decisions. In Handbook of Accessible Achievement Tests for All Students: Bridging the Gaps Between Research, Practice, and Policy; Elliott, S.N., Kettler, R.J., Beddow, P.A., Kurz, A., Eds.; Springer: New York, NY, 2011; pp. 69–81 ISBN 9781441993557.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Gels.

Blog post
Luntz, S. Largest Lunar Explosion Recorded Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Aviation Safety: Opportunities Exist for FAA to Refine the Controller Staffing Process; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1997;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Williams Soberanes, C. Experiences of Mexican Immigrant Women Living in the Washington D.C. Metropolitan Area. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University: Washington, DC, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, M. A Retail Internship. New York Times 2010, E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleGels
ISSN (online)2310-2861

Other styles