How to format your references using the Gels citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Gels. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Paul, D. A double-edged sword. Nature 2000, 405, 515.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bavelier, D.; Davidson, R.J. Brain training: Games to do you good. Nature 2013, 494, 425–426.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tupler, R.; Perini, G.; Green, M.R. Expressing the human genome. Nature 2001, 409, 832–833.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Zhang, J.; Huang, W.; Chua, S.S.; Wei, P.; Moore, D.D. Modulation of acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity by the xenobiotic receptor CAR. Science 2002, 298, 422–424.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Southard, T.E.; Marshall, S.D.; Bonner, L.L. Orthodontics in the Vertical Dimension; John Wiley & Sons, Inc: Hoboken, NJ, 2015; ISBN 9781118925225.
An edited book
Srivastava, R. Growth and Form of Self-organized Branched Crystal Pattern in Nonlinear Chemical System; Yadav, N., Chattopadhyay, J., Eds.; SpringerBriefs in Molecular Science; Springer: Singapore, 2016; ISBN 9789811008634.
A chapter in an edited book
Goldspink, C. Social Norms from the Perspective of Embodied Cognition. In The Complexity of Social Norms; Xenitidou, M., Edmonds, B., Eds.; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2014; pp. 55–79 ISBN 9783319053073.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Gels.

Blog post
Carpineti, C. New Stem Cell Method Produces Millions of Human Brain Cells In Days Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Mass Transit: Actions Needed for the BART Airport Extension; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1996;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gilbert, S.A. Succession Planning Relating to the Millennial Generation in Private Four-Year Universities. Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University: Malibu, CA, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Bennhold, K.; de la MERCED, M.J. Uber Leader, in Visit to London, Appeals to Regain Operating License. New York Times 2017, B6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleGels
ISSN (online)2310-2861

Other styles