How to format your references using the Gels citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Gels. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hertwig, R. Psychology. Tapping into the Wisdom of the Crowd--with Confidence. Science 2012, 336, 303–304.
A journal article with 2 authors
Brittain, S.D.; Rettig, T.W. CO and H(3)(+) in the Protoplanetary Disk around the Star HD141569. Nature 2002, 418, 57–59.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ghimire, A.; Shafran, E.; Gerton, J.M. Using a Sharp Metal Tip to Control the Polarization and Direction of Emission from a Quantum Dot. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 6456.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Mereghetti, S.; Tiengo, A.; Esposito, P.; La Palombara, N.; Israel, G.L.; Stella, L. An Ultramassive, Fast-Spinning White Dwarf in a Peculiar Binary System. Science 2009, 325, 1222–1223.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Matthews, G.A. Pesticides; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2015; ISBN 9781118975923.
An edited book
Subseafloor Biosphere Linked to Hydrothermal Systems: TAIGA Concept; Ishibashi, J.-I., Okino, K., Sunamura, M., Eds.; Springer Japan: Tokyo, 2015; ISBN 9784431548645.
A chapter in an edited book
Janse, M.J. Activation of the Heart. In Comprehensive Electrocardiology; Macfarlane, P.W., van Oosterom, A., Pahlm, O., Kligfield, P., Janse, M., Camm, J., Eds.; Springer: London, 2010; pp. 145–165 ISBN 9781848820456.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Gels.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. What The Bourne Films Get Right And Wrong About Amnesia Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Intercity Passenger Rail: Prospects for Amtrak’s Financial Viability; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1998;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cornejo, V.M. Teachers’ Perceptions about Promoting Mental Health in the Classroom. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J. Mets’ Leadoff Hitter Technically Is Not Missing, but His Bat Has Vanished. New York Times 2017, SP3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleGels
ISSN (online)2310-2861

Other styles