How to format your references using the Gels citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Gels. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Goroff, N.S. Chemistry.A Clear Path for Polymer Crystallization. Science 2014, 343, 258–259.
A journal article with 2 authors
Smith, M.R.; Caron, J.-B. Hallucigenia’s Head and the Pharyngeal Armature of Early Ecdysozoans. Nature 2015, 523, 75–78.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rideout, W.M., 3rd; Eggan, K.; Jaenisch, R. Nuclear Cloning and Epigenetic Reprogramming of the Genome. Science 2001, 293, 1093–1098.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Whaley, S.R.; English, D.S.; Hu, E.L.; Barbara, P.F.; Belcher, A.M. Selection of Peptides with Semiconductor Binding Specificity for Directed Nanocrystal Assembly. Nature 2000, 405, 665–668.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hendrick, J. Law and Ethics in Children’s Nursing; Wiley-Blackwell: Oxford, UK, 2010; ISBN 9781444320428.
An edited book
Rong, J. Metasomatic Textures in Granites: Evidence from Petrographic Observation; Wang, F., Ed.; Springer Mineralogy; Springer: Singapore, 2016; ISBN 9789811006654.
A chapter in an edited book
Santos-Pereira, C.; Augusto, A.B.; Correia, M.E.; Ferreira, A.; Cruz-Correia, R. A Mobile Based Authorization Mechanism for Patient Managed Role Based Access Control. In Information Technology in Bio- and Medical Informatics: Third International Conference, ITBAM 2012, Vienna, Austria, September 4-5, 2012. Proceedings; Böhm, C., Khuri, S., Lhotská, L., Renda, M.E., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012; pp. 54–68 ISBN 9783642323942.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Gels.

Blog post
Hale, T. France Leads The Way With World’s First Solar Panel Road Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Aviation Security: TSA Has Strengthened Efforts to Plan for the Optimal Deployment of Checked Baggage Screening Systems, but Funding Uncertainties Remain; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2006;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Smith, G.S. The Relationship between Legislative Implementations and Educator Readiness in Inclusive Educational Environments. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix: Phoenix, AZ, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin, J. Departing Fox Executive May Be Heading to AMC. New York Times 2017, B6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleGels
ISSN (online)2310-2861

Other styles