How to format your references using the Geothermal Energy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geothermal Energy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Butt Y. Beyond the myth of the supernova-remnant origin of cosmic rays. Nature. 2009 Aug 6;460(7256):701–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Engelhardt KA, Ritchie ME. Effects of macrophyte species richness on wetland ecosystem functioning and services. Nature. 2001 Jun 7;411(6838):687–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pornillos O, Ganser-Pornillos BK, Yeager M. Atomic-level modelling of the HIV capsid. Nature. 2011 Jan 20;469(7330):424–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Tanaka J-I, Horiike Y, Matsuzaki M, Miyazaki T, Ellis-Davies GCR, Kasai H. Protein synthesis and neurotrophin-dependent structural plasticity of single dendritic spines. Science. 2008 Mar 21;319(5870):1683–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Berto F. There’s Something about Gödel. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2009.
An edited book
Calvetti D. Introduction to Bayesian Scientific Computing: Ten Lectures on Subjective Computing. Somersalo E, editor. New York, NY: Springer; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
Crowder JA, Carbone JN, Demijohn R. Systems Engineering Tools and Practices. In: Carbone JN, Demijohn R, editors. Multidisciplinary Systems Engineering: Architecting the Design Process. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 89–103.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geothermal Energy.

Blog post
Andrew D. NASA Sent A Twin To Space To Study Nature Versus Nurture – And We’re Starting To Get Results [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Improving Social Security Administration Procedures for Acquiring ADP and Telecommunications Resources. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1980 Mar. Report No.: 112942.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Peterson K. Development of a facility-specific dietary training program for diet technicians [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
de la MERCED MJ. Rothschild Sets Sights On U.S. Tech Investments. New York Times. 2017 May 9;B6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Butt 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Butt 2009; Engelhardt and Ritchie 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Engelhardt and Ritchie 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Tanaka et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeothermal Energy
AbbreviationGeotherm. Energy
ISSN (online)2195-9706

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