How to format your references using the Geothermal Energy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geothermal Energy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Baillie JK. Translational genomics. Targeting the host immune response to fight infection. Science. 2014 May 23;344(6186):807–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wilson TD, Bar-Anan Y. Psychology. The unseen mind. Science. 2008 Aug 22;321(5892):1046–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Grenfell BT, Bjørnstad ON, Kappey J. Travelling waves and spatial hierarchies in measles epidemics. Nature. 2001 Dec 13;414(6865):716–23.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Mones E, Araújo NAM, Vicsek T, Herrmann HJ. Shock waves on complex networks. Sci. Rep. 2014 May 13;4:4949.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Riches J. Galatians Through the Centuries. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Ltd; 2008.
An edited book
Estrada E, Fox M, Higham DJ, Oppo G-L, editors. Network Science: Complexity in Nature and Technology. London: Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Rémy B, Thuillier A, Werner A. Bruhat-Tits Buildings and Analytic Geometry. In: Ducros A, Favre C, Nicaise J, editors. Berkovich Spaces and Applications. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 141–202.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geothermal Energy.

Blog post
Andrew E. Live Webcast: Three Astronauts Head to ISS [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Current National Issues Involving Science and Technology. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1979 Nov. Report No.: 094310.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mikhailik Y. Longing Limned [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Talbot M. Revisiting the Revolution, This Time as a Tourist. New York Times. 2014 Mar 9;TR4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Baillie 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Baillie 2014; Wilson and Bar-Anan 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wilson and Bar-Anan 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Mones et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeothermal Energy
AbbreviationGeotherm. Energy
ISSN (online)2195-9706

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