How to format your references using the Geothermal Energy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geothermal Energy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bromm V. Astronomy. From darkness to light. Science. 2007 Sep 14;317(5844):1511–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
Orme CM, Bogan JS. Cell biology. Sorting out diabetes. Science. 2009 May 29;324(5931):1155–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
Iacopino V, Allen SA, Keller AS. Ethics. Bad science used to support torture and human experimentation. Science. 2011 Jan 7;331(6013):34–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Sussan TE, Yang A, Li F, Ostrowski MC, Reeves RH. Trisomy represses Apc(Min)-mediated tumours in mouse models of Down’s syndrome. Nature. 2008 Jan 3;451(7174):73–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Svensson H. Schrägkabelbrücken. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2011.
An edited book
Dana RH, Allen J, editors. Cultural Competency Training in a Global Society. New York, NY: Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Ott HC, Taylor DA. Myoblast Cell Transplantation: Preclinical Studies. In: Dib N, Taylor DA, Diethrich EB, editors. Stem Cell Therapy and Tissue Engineering for Cardiovascular Repair: From Basic Research to Clinical Applications. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2006. p. 81–93.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geothermal Energy.

Blog post
Andrews R. 7,000-Year-Old Lost Egyptian City Found By Archaeologists [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Federal Research: Two Political Science Grants Awarded by the National Science Foundation. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1998 Mar. Report No.: RCED-98-91R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rey D. Chaos, Observability and Symplectic Structure in Optimal Estimation [Doctoral dissertation]. [La Jolla, CA]: University of California San Diego; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard M. A Yoga Manifesto. New York Times. 2010 Apr 23;ST1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bromm 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Bromm 2007; Orme and Bogan 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Orme and Bogan 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Sussan et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeothermal Energy
AbbreviationGeotherm. Energy
ISSN (online)2195-9706

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