How to format your references using the Geothermal Energy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geothermal Energy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Madden JD. Mobile robots: motor challenges and materials solutions. Science. 2007 Nov 16;318(5853):1094–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lee SWS, Schwarz N. Washing away postdecisional dissonance. Science. 2010 May 7;328(5979):709.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bingenheimer JB, Brennan RT, Earls FJ. Firearm violence exposure and serious violent behavior. Science. 2005 May 27;308(5726):1323–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Branderhorst MPA, Londero P, Wasylczyk P, Brif C, Kosut RL, Rabitz H, et al. Coherent control of decoherence. Science. 2008 May 2;320(5876):638–43.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Krasner D. A History of Modern Drama. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2016.
An edited book
Feld LG, Kaskel FJ, editors. Fluid and Electrolytes in Pediatrics: A Comprehensive Handbook. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Davis RL, Simmons K. Database Mirroring Setup. In: Simmons K, editor. Pro SQL Server 2008 Mirroring. Berkeley, CA: Apress; 2009. p. 31–52.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geothermal Energy.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. Turning Atmospheric CO2 Into Carbon Nanofibers Could Reduce Global Warming [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Investing in the Very Young. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1988 Jan. Report No.: 137163.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Xiao S. Effects of adsorbates on the electronic properties of graphene [Doctoral dissertation]. [College Park, MD]: University of Maryland, College Park; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley B. Election Night, With a Play in Real Time. New York Times. 2016 Nov 9;C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Madden 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Lee and Schwarz 2010; Madden 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lee and Schwarz 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Branderhorst et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeothermal Energy
AbbreviationGeotherm. Energy
ISSN (online)2195-9706

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