How to format your references using the Geosphere citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geosphere. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kamien, R.D., 2003, Physics. Topology from the bottom up: Science (New York, N.Y.), v. 299, p. 1671–1673.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bright, A.T., and Winzeler, E.A., 2013, Epidemiology: resistance mapping in malaria: Nature, v. 498, p. 446–447.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nozaki, T., Kato, Y., and Suzuki, K., 2013, Late Jurassic ocean anoxic event: evidence from voluminous sulphide deposition and preservation in the Panthalassa: Scientific reports, v. 3, p. 1889.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Jadzinsky, P.D., Calero, G., Ackerson, C.J., Bushnell, D.A., and Kornberg, R.D., 2007, Structure of a thiol monolayer-protected gold nanoparticle at 1.1 A resolution: Science (New York, N.Y.), v. 318, p. 430–433.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bachmann, H., Steinle, A., and Hahn, V., 2010, Bauen mit Betonfertigteilen im Hochbau: Weinheim, Germany, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Camina, A., 2011, An Introduction to Enumeration (B. Lewis, Ed.): London, Springer, Springer Undergraduate Mathematics Series, XII, 232p. 62 illus p.
A chapter in an edited book
Chini, I., 2008, ICT policy as a governance domain: The case of Greece and the European Commission, in Avgerou, C., Smith, M.L., and Besselaar, P. van der eds., Social Dimensions Of Information And Communication Technology Policy: Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Human Choice and Computers (HCC8), IFIP TC 9, Pretoria, South Africa, September 25-26, 2008, Boston, MA, Springer US, IFIP International Federation for Information Processing, p. 45–62.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geosphere.

Blog post
Fang, J., 2014, Your Brain Is “Hard-Wired” To React Without Thinking: IFLScience, (accessed October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1995, Performance Measurement: Efforts to Evaluate the Advanced Technology Program: U.S. Government Printing Office RCED-95-68.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Claypool, K.K., 2017, Organizational Success: How the Presence of Happiness in the Workplace Affects Employee Engagement that Leads to Organizational Success [Doctoral dissertation]: Pepperdine University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Paulson, M., 2017, The Musical That Toppled a Confederate Statue: New York Times, p. C4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kamien, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Kamien, 2003; Bright and Winzeler, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bright and Winzeler, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Jadzinsky et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeosphere
ISSN (online)1553-040X

Other styles