How to format your references using the Geosphere citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geosphere. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cuntz, M., 2011, Carbon cycle: a dent in carbon’s gold standard: Nature, v. 477, p. 547–548.
A journal article with 2 authors
Grosche, A., and Reichenbach, A., 2013, Neuroscience. Developmental refining of neuroglial signaling? Science (New York, N.Y.), v. 339, p. 152–153.
A journal article with 3 authors
Feinstein, N.W., Allen, S., and Jenkins, E., 2013, Outside the pipeline: reimagining science education for nonscientists: Science (New York, N.Y.), v. 340, p. 314–317.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Antoci, V. et al., 2011, The excitation of solar-like oscillations in a δSct star by efficient envelope convection: Nature, v. 477, p. 570–573.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bakker, J., and Clarke, R.J., 2011, Wine Flavour Chemistry: Oxford, UK, Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Paugh, P., Kress, T., and Lake, R. (Eds.), 2014, Teaching towards Democracy with Postmodern and Popular Culture Texts: Rotterdam, SensePublishers, Imagination and Praxis, Criticality and Creativity in Education and Educational Research, VIII, 258 p p.
A chapter in an edited book
Sun, X., and Law, E.L.-C., 2010, Towards a Structural Model for Intention to Play a Digital Educational Game, in Pan, Z., Cheok, A.D., Müller, W., Zhang, X., and Wong, K. eds., Transactions on Edutainment IV, Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, p. 44–55.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geosphere.

Blog post
Fang, J., 2014, Were Dinosaurs Warm Or Cold Blooded? IFLScience,.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2002, School Meal Programs: Estimated Costs for Three Administrative Processes at Selected Locations: U.S. Government Printing Office GAO-02-944.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Khatib, E., 2010, A phenomenological study on the potential impact of implementing information systems in midsize corporations [Doctoral dissertation]: University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S., 2013, Bolshoi Official Raises Attack Questions: New York Times, p. C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cuntz, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Cuntz, 2011; Grosche and Reichenbach, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Grosche and Reichenbach, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Antoci et al., 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeosphere
ISSN (online)1553-040X

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