How to format your references using the Geosphere citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geosphere. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Payne, M.R., 2013, Fisheries: climate change at the dinner table: Nature, v. 497, p. 320–321.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hughes, A.L., and Gottschling, D.E., 2012, An early age increase in vacuolar pH limits mitochondrial function and lifespan in yeast: Nature, v. 492, p. 261–265.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gans, J., Wolinsky, M., and Dunbar, J., 2005, Computational improvements reveal great bacterial diversity and high metal toxicity in soil: Science (New York, N.Y.), v. 309, p. 1387–1390.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Engstrom, D.R., Fritz, S.C., Almendinger, J.E., and Juggins, S., 2000, Chemical and biological trends during lake evolution in recently deglaciated terrain: Nature, v. 408, p. 161–166.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Brown, R.A., 2012, Extreme Tissue Engineering: Chichester, UK, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Kau, C.H., 2011, Cone Beam CT of the Head and Neck: An Anatomical Atlas (K. Abramovitch, S. G. Kamel, & M. Bozic, Eds.): Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer, IX, 66 p. 46 illus. in color p.
A chapter in an edited book
Vestergaard, C., and Deleuran, M.S., 2014, Inflammatory-Driven Depletion of Filaggrin Proteins, in Thyssen, J.P. and Maibach, H.I. eds., Filaggrin: Basic Science, Epidemiology, Clinical Aspects and Management, Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer, p. 27–36.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geosphere.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2016, What Mongol History Predicts For The New Season Of Game of Thrones: IFLScience, (accessed October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2000, Intercity Passenger Rail: Amtrak Will Continue to Have Difficulty Controlling Its Costs and Meeting Capital Needs: U.S. Government Printing Office RCED-00-138.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lowrance, T.L., 2017, Exploring the Four Modes of Organizational Forgetting in an Organization Post Acquisition [Doctoral dissertation]: George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hay, G., Doyle, M., and Pethokoukis, J., 2010, Planned U.S. Tax Might Hurt Europe’s Banks Less: New York Times, p. B2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Payne, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Hughes and Gottschling, 2012; Payne, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hughes and Gottschling, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Engstrom et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeosphere
ISSN (online)1553-040X

Other styles