How to format your references using the Geosphere citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geosphere. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Scholze, M., 2007, Earth network: Nature, v. 447, p. 228.
A journal article with 2 authors
Modlin, R.L., and Bloom, B.R., 2001, Immunology. Chip shots--will functional genomics get functional? Science (New York, N.Y.), v. 294, p. 799–801.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sánchez-Villagra, M.R., Aguilera, O., and Horovitz, I., 2003, The anatomy of the world’s largest extinct rodent: Science (New York, N.Y.), v. 301, p. 1708–1710.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Kenichi, T., Kyoko, S., Hiroshi, F., and Mitsuko, O., 2003, Modulated structure of solid iodine during its molecular dissociation under high pressure: Nature, v. 423, p. 971–974.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Imbriale, W.A., 2005, Large Antennas of the Deep Space Network: Hoboken, NJ, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Bahadir, A.M., and Duca, G. (Eds.), 2009, The Role of Ecological Chemistry in Pollution Research and Sustainable Development: Dordrecht, Springer Netherlands, NATO Science for Peace and Security Series C: Environmental Security, XX, 308 p p.
A chapter in an edited book
Hruska, F., 2015, Trends in the Sensor Development, in Silhavy, R., Senkerik, R., Oplatkova, Z.K., Prokopova, Z., and Silhavy, P. eds., Intelligent Systems in Cybernetics and Automation Theory: Proceedings of the 4th Computer Science On-line Conference 2015 (CSOC2015), Vol 2: Intelligent Systems in Cybernetics and Automation Theory, Cham, Springer International Publishing, Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, p. 45–55.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geosphere.

Blog post
Davis, J., 2016, Fifty Years Ago, The Sugar Industry Was Funding Research Downplaying Its Effect On Health: IFLScience, (accessed October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1986, [Comments on H.R. 4086]: U.S. Government Printing Office B-208159.9.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nelson, P.T., 2008, Sound as a gateway to a personal relationship with nature [Doctoral dissertation]: Pacifica Graduate Institute.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Loomis, G., 2013, Mozart Is the Big Draw, but Variety Is the Goal: New York Times, p. 0.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Scholze, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Modlin and Bloom, 2001; Scholze, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Modlin and Bloom, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Kenichi et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeosphere
ISSN (online)1553-040X

Other styles