How to format your references using the Geosphere citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geosphere. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P., 2003, Language lessons: Heidelberg: Nature, v. 423, p. 364–365.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gouaux, E., and Mackinnon, R., 2005, Principles of selective ion transport in channels and pumps: Science (New York, N.Y.), v. 310, p. 1461–1465.
A journal article with 3 authors
Griesinger, C.B., Richards, C.D., and Ashmore, J.F., 2005, Fast vesicle replenishment allows indefatigable signalling at the first auditory synapse: Nature, v. 435, p. 212–215.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Ligoxygakis, P., Pelte, N., Hoffmann, J.A., and Reichhart, J.-M., 2002, Activation of Drosophila Toll during fungal infection by a blood serine protease: Science (New York, N.Y.), v. 297, p. 114–116.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McMaster, M.C., 2005, LC/MS: Hoboken, NJ, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Linsky, J.L., Izmodenov, V.V., Möbius, E., and Steiger, R. von (Eds.), 2009, From the Outer Heliosphere to the Local Bubble: Comparisons of New Observations with Theory: New York, NY, Springer, Space Sciences Series of ISSI, v. 31, VI, 478 p p.
A chapter in an edited book
Allinson, R., 2005, The Birth of Spiritual Economics, in Zsolnai, L. ed., Spirituality and Ethics in Management, Dordrecht, Springer Netherlands, Issues in Business Ethics, p. 61–74.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geosphere.

Blog post
Hamilton, K., 2017, Claim Of Link Between Intelligence And Cannabis Use In Adolescence Provides Fresh Headache For Researcher: IFLScience, (accessed October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1990, Airline Scheduling: Airlines’ On-Time Performance: U.S. Government Printing Office RCED-90-154.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stanford, V., 2016, Finding theatre from within: Augusto Boal’s Games for Non-Actors in an Introduction to Acting class [Doctoral dissertation]: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Turkewitz, J., Stolberg, S.G., Eligon, J., and Blinder, A., 2017, Before the Gunfire in Virginia, A Volatile Home Life in Illinois: New York Times, p. A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Smaglik, 2003; Gouaux and Mackinnon, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gouaux and Mackinnon, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Ligoxygakis et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeosphere
ISSN (online)1553-040X

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