How to format your references using the Geological Magazine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geological Magazine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Flasar, F.M. 2006. Planetary science. Titan’s polar weather. Science (New York, N.Y.) 313(5793), 1582–1583.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ohman, M.D. & Hirche, H.J. 2001. Density-dependent mortality in an oceanic copepod population. Nature 412(6847), 638–641.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pfeifer, R., Lungarella, M. & Iida, F. 2007. Self-organization, embodiment, and biologically inspired robotics. Science (New York, N.Y.) 318(5853), 1088–1093.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Hebting, Y., Schaeffer, P., Behrens, A., Adam, P., Schmitt, G., Schneckenburger, P., Bernasconi, S.M. & Albrecht, P. 2006. Biomarker evidence for a major preservation pathway of sedimentary organic carbon. Science (New York, N.Y.) 312(5780), 1627–1631.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tang, C. 2016. The Data Industry: The Business and Economics of Information and Big Data, Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc,p.
An edited book
Nedović, V., Raspor, P., Lević, J., Tumbas Šaponjac, V. & Barbosa-Cánovas, G.V. eds. 2016. Emerging and Traditional Technologies for Safe, Healthy and Quality Food, Cham: Springer International Publishing, XVIII, 478 p. 68 illus., 19 illus. in colorp.
A chapter in an edited book
Zhang, Y.-H. & Zhang, F. 2012. Research on New Algorithm of Topic-Oriented Crawler and Duplicated Web Pages Detection. In Intelligent Computing Theories and Applications: 8th International Conference, ICIC 2012, Huangshan, China, July 25-29, 2012. Proceedings (eds. D.-S. Huang, J. Ma, K.-H. Jo, & M. M. Gromiha), pp. 35–42. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geological Magazine.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. 2017. NASA Is Going To Make An Announcement About A Mission To ‘Touch The Sun’. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1992. Internal Control Weaknesses in Army Safeguarding of Computer Equipment, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office,p.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hasbini, M.A. 2017. The Great Recession of 2007 and the Housing Market Crash: Why Did So Many Builders Fail? Lessons for the Local Homebuilding Industry. Doctoral dissertation. Tampa, FL: University of South Florida,p.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Burghardt, L.F. 2006. Nunley’s Carousel Comes Full Circle. New York Times, 14LI3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Flasar, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Flasar, 2006; Ohman & Hirche, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ohman & Hirche, 2001)
  • Three authors: (Pfeifer, Lungarella & Iida, 2007)
  • 4 or more authors: (Hebting et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeological Magazine
AbbreviationGeol. Mag.
ISSN (print)0016-7568
ISSN (online)1469-5081

Other styles