How to format your references using the Geological Magazine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geological Magazine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gibbs, R. 2000. The search continues for Karman’s St Christopher. Nature 406(6792), 122.
A journal article with 2 authors
Heinz, J. & Idsardi, W. 2011. Psychology. Sentence and word complexity. Science (New York, N.Y.) 333(6040), 295–297.
A journal article with 3 authors
Park, S.T., Kim, S.K. & Kim, M.S. 2002. Observation of conformation-specific pathways in the photodissociation of 1-iodopropane ions. Nature 415(6869), 306–308.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
McKay, D., White, M., Pasienski, M. & DeMarco, B. 2008. Phase-slip-induced dissipation in an atomic Bose-Hubbard system. Nature 453(7191), 76–79.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Merrills, J. & Fisher, J. 2008. Pharmacy Law and Practice, Oxford, UK: Blackwell Science Ltd,p.
An edited book
Dunlap, B.J. ed. 2015. Proceedings of the 1990 Academy of Marketing Science (AMS) Annual Conference, Cham: Springer International Publishing, XXXIV, 546 pp.
A chapter in an edited book
Zielinski, A., Simon, C. & Wittl, T. 2009. Morphisto: Service-Oriented Open Source Morphology for German. In State of the Art in Computational Morphology: Workshop on Systems and Frameworks for Computational Morphology, SFCM 2009, Zurich, Switzerland, September 4, 2009. Proceedings (eds. C. Mahlow & M. Piotrowski), pp. 64–75. Communications in Computer and Information Science, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geological Magazine.

Blog post
Andrews, R. 2016. Here’s How To Find Out What Google Knows About You. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 2017. Maritime Administration: Proceeds from the Sale of Obsolete Vessels Were Accounted for, Allocated, and Disbursed Consistent with Applicable Law, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office,p.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gardina, V.J. 2008. Analysis of LiDAR data for fluvial geomorphic change detection at a small Maryland stream. Doctoral dissertation. College Park, MD: University of Maryland, College Park,p.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Davey, M. & Walsh, M.W. 2013. For Detroit, a Crisis Born of Bad Decisions and Crossed Fingers. New York Times, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gibbs, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Gibbs, 2000; Heinz & Idsardi, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Heinz & Idsardi, 2011)
  • Three authors: (Park, Kim & Kim, 2002)
  • 4 or more authors: (McKay et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeological Magazine
AbbreviationGeol. Mag.
ISSN (print)0016-7568
ISSN (online)1469-5081

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