How to format your references using the Geological Magazine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geological Magazine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mitchell, T.M. 2009. Computer science. Mining our reality. Science (New York, N.Y.) 326(5960), 1644–1645.
A journal article with 2 authors
Vasconcelos, C. & McKenzie, J.A. 2009. Geochemistry. The descent of minerals. Science (New York, N.Y.) 323(5911), 218–219.
A journal article with 3 authors
Vohs, K.D., Mead, N.L. & Goode, M.R. 2006. The psychological consequences of money. Science (New York, N.Y.) 314(5802), 1154–1156.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Moyer, A.E., Zheng, W., Johnson, E.A., Lamanna, M.C., Li, D.-Q., Lacovara, K.J. & Schweitzer, M.H. 2014. Melanosomes or microbes: testing an alternative hypothesis for the origin of microbodies in fossil feathers. Scientific reports 4, 4233.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sailor, W. 2009. Making RTI Work, San Francisco, CA, USA: Jossey-Bass,p.
An edited book
Wilcock, N. 2016. Hartmut Elsenhans and a Critique of Capitalism: Conversations on Theory and Policy Implications ed. C. Scholz, London: Palgrave Macmillan UK, XII, 184 pp.
A chapter in an edited book
Reddy, N. & Yang, Y. 2015. Fibers from Cotton Stalks. In Innovative Biofibers from Renewable Resources (ed. Y. Yang), pp. 13–14. , Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geological Magazine.

Blog post
Fang, J. 2015. Giant, ‘Living Fossil’ Fish Has A Vestigial Lung. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 2006. U.S. Aerospace Industry: Progress in Implementing Aerospace Commission Recommendations, and Remaining Challenges, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office,p.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wright, M.W. 2017. The Louisiana Teacher Assault Pay Statute: An Analysis of Court Decisions Interpreting the Statute and a Comparative Study of Teacher Assault Pay Statutes in Other States. Doctoral dissertation. Lafayette, LA: University of Louisiana,p.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodara, S. 2016. Using Their Artistic Vision to Pierce Iran’s Veil. New York Times, WE7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Mitchell, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Mitchell, 2009; Vasconcelos & McKenzie, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Vasconcelos & McKenzie, 2009)
  • Three authors: (Vohs, Mead & Goode, 2006)
  • 4 or more authors: (Moyer et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeological Magazine
AbbreviationGeol. Mag.
ISSN (print)0016-7568
ISSN (online)1469-5081

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