How to format your references using the Geological Magazine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geological Magazine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Conard, N.J. 2009. A female figurine from the basal Aurignacian of Hohle Fels Cave in southwestern Germany. Nature 459(7244), 248–252.
A journal article with 2 authors
Loayza, D. & De Lange, T. 2003. POT1 as a terminal transducer of TRF1 telomere length control. Nature 423(6943), 1013–1018.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tsushima, Y., Sasaki, Y. & Watanabe, T. 2006. Greater disruption due to failure of inhibitory control on an ambiguous distractor. Science (New York, N.Y.) 314(5806), 1786–1788.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Yu, B., Zhang, H., Xu, W., Li, G. & Wu, Z. 2014. Remediation of chromium-slag leakage with electricity cogeneration via a urea-Cr(VI) cell. Scientific reports 4, 5860.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zadora, G., Martyna, A., Ramos, D. & Aitken, C. 2013. Statistical Analysis in Forensic Science, Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd,p.
An edited book
Heupel, M. & Reinold, T. eds. 2016. The Rule of Law in Global Governance, London: Palgrave Macmillan UK, XVII, 249 p. 1 illus. in colorp.
A chapter in an edited book
Agarwal, R., O’Regan, D. & Saker, S. 2014. Lyapunov Inequalities. In Dynamic Inequalities On Time Scales (eds. D. O’Regan & S. Saker), pp. 175–214. , Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geological Magazine.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. 2017. Does Drinking Wine Seriously Engage Your Brain More Than A Math Problem? IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 2011. School Improvement Grants: Early Implementation Under Way, but Reforms Affected by Short Time Frames, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office,p.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Topdemir, C.M. 2010. School counselor accountability practices: A national study. Doctoral dissertation. Tampa, FL: University of South Florida,p.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shear, M.D. 2017. ‘I’m President and They’re Not’: Trump Attack Brings Crowd to Its Feet. New York Times, A18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Conard, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Conard, 2009; Loayza & De Lange, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Loayza & De Lange, 2003)
  • Three authors: (Tsushima, Sasaki & Watanabe, 2006)
  • 4 or more authors: (Yu et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeological Magazine
AbbreviationGeol. Mag.
ISSN (print)0016-7568
ISSN (online)1469-5081

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