How to format your references using the Geological Magazine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geological Magazine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rausher, M.D. 2007. Comment on ‘Evolutionary paths underlying flower color variation in Antirrhinum’. Science (New York, N.Y.) 315(5811), 461; author reply 461.
A journal article with 2 authors
DeConto, R.M. & Pollard, D. 2003. Rapid Cenozoic glaciation of Antarctica induced by declining atmospheric CO2. Nature 421(6920), 245–249.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kim, J., Ashenhurst, J.A. & Movassaghi, M. 2009. Total synthesis of (+)-11,11’-dideoxyverticillin A. Science (New York, N.Y.) 324(5924), 238–241.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Engin, F., Nguyen, T., Yermalovich, A. & Hotamisligil, G.S. 2014. Aberrant islet unfolded protein response in type 2 diabetes. Scientific reports 4, 4054.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Manuele, F.A. 2007. Advanced Safety Management Focusing on Z10 and Serious Injury Prevention, Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.,p.
An edited book
Onji, M. 2008. Dendritic Cells in Clinics 2nd Edition. ed. S. Fazle Akbar, Tokyo: Springer Japan, XIV, 194 p. 23 illus., 9 illus. in colorp.
A chapter in an edited book
Karadimce, A. & Davcev, D. 2014. Adaptive Multimedia Delivery in M-Learning Systems Using Profiling. In ICT Innovations 2013: ICT Innovations and Education (eds. V. Trajkovik & M. Anastas), pp. 57–65. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, Heidelberg: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geological Magazine.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2015. Revealed For The First Time: Map Sheds Light On Dark Matter That Binds The Universe Together. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1978. Coordination, Policy Development, and Implementation for International Telecommunications Facilities, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office,p.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Atchison, D. 2017. An Examination of Educational Equity: The Impact of Accountability and Finance Reform Policies. Doctoral dissertation. Washington, DC: George Washington University,p.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. 2007. Justices, Voting 5-4, Limit the Use of Race In Integration Plans. New York Times, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Rausher, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Rausher, 2007; DeConto & Pollard, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (DeConto & Pollard, 2003)
  • Three authors: (Kim, Ashenhurst & Movassaghi, 2009)
  • 4 or more authors: (Engin et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeological Magazine
AbbreviationGeol. Mag.
ISSN (print)0016-7568
ISSN (online)1469-5081

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