How to format your references using the Geological Magazine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geological Magazine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hummer, G. 2014. Biochemistry. Potassium ions line up. Science (New York, N.Y.) 346(6207), 303.
A journal article with 2 authors
Blatt, R. & Wineland, D. 2008. Entangled states of trapped atomic ions. Nature 453(7198), 1008–1015.
A journal article with 3 authors
Guilbaud, R., Butler, I.B. & Ellam, R.M. 2011. Abiotic pyrite formation produces a large Fe isotope fractionation. Science (New York, N.Y.) 332(6037), 1548–1551.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Ferrón, S.R., Charalambous, M., Radford, E., McEwen, K., Wildner, H., Hind, E., Morante-Redolat, J.M., Laborda, J., Guillemot, F., Bauer, S.R., Fariñas, I. & Ferguson-Smith, A.C. 2011. Postnatal loss of Dlk1 imprinting in stem cells and niche astrocytes regulates neurogenesis. Nature 475(7356), 381–385.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Howe, T.R. 2011. Marriages & Families in the 21st Century, Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell,p.
An edited book
Colonna, S. 2013. I cibi della salute: Le basi chimiche di una corretta alimentazione eds. G. Folco & F. Marangoni, Milano: Springer, XIV, 254 paggp.
A chapter in an edited book
Yousaf, J., Li, J., Zhang, H. & Hou, L. 2012. Exploration and Visualization of Administrator Network in Wikipedia. In Web Technologies and Applications: 14th Asia-Pacific Web Conference, APWeb 2012, Kunming, China, April 11-13, 2012. Proceedings (eds. Q. Z. Sheng, G. Wang, C. S. Jensen, & G. Xu), pp. 46–59. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geological Magazine.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2015. Awesome Video Shows A Soyuz Launching And Docking To The International Space Station. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1986. What Every Auditor Should Know About Computer Information Systems, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office,p.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Esmaili, G. 2006. Application of Advanced Power Electronics in Renewable Energy Sources and Hybrid Generating Systems. Doctoral dissertation. Columbus, OH: Ohio State University,p.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik, J. 2017. Crossing to Grief’s Other Side. New York Times, C7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hummer, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Hummer, 2014; Blatt & Wineland, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Blatt & Wineland, 2008)
  • Three authors: (Guilbaud, Butler & Ellam, 2011)
  • 4 or more authors: (Ferrón et al., 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeological Magazine
AbbreviationGeol. Mag.
ISSN (print)0016-7568
ISSN (online)1469-5081

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