How to format your references using the Environmental Hazards citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Environmental Hazards. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Koen, D. (2003). Nuts and bolts. Nature, 425(6958), 644.
A journal article with 2 authors
Maerkl, S. J., & Quake, S. R. (2007). A systems approach to measuring the binding energy landscapes of transcription factors. Science (New York, N.Y.), 315(5809), 233–237.
A journal article with 3 authors
Weisz, C., Glowatzki, E., & Fuchs, P. (2009). The postsynaptic function of type II cochlear afferents. Nature, 461(7267), 1126–1129.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Gordon, M. D., Dionne, M. S., Schneider, D. S., & Nusse, R. (2005). WntD is a feedback inhibitor of Dorsal/NF-kappaB in Drosophila development and immunity. Nature, 437(7059), 746–749.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wiens, J. A. (2016). Ecological Challenges and Conservation Conundrums. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Kogure, T. (2007). The Astrophysics of Emission-Line Stars (K.-C. Leung, Ed.; Vol. 342). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Lapidus, M. L., & van Frankenhuijsen, M. (2013). Generalized Fractal Strings Viewed as Measures. In M. van Frankenhuijsen (Ed.), Fractal Geometry, Complex Dimensions and Zeta Functions: Geometry and Spectra of Fractal Strings (pp. 119–135). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Environmental Hazards.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2015, September 9). Sperm Whales Have Local Dialects. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1992). Remedial Education: Modifying Chapter 1 Formula Would Target More Funds to Those Most in Need (HRD-92-16). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Malkus, N. (2012). Beneath the district averages: Intradistrict differences in teacher compensation expenditures [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Maryland, College Park.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, B. (2016, December 29). The Listings; Film Series. New York Times, C28.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Koen, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Koen, 2003; Maerkl & Quake, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Maerkl & Quake, 2007)
  • Three authors: (Weisz et al., 2009)
  • 6 or more authors: (Gordon et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleEnvironmental Hazards
AbbreviationEnviron. Hazards
ISSN (print)1747-7891
ISSN (online)1878-0059
ScopeGeneral Environmental Science
Global and Planetary Change
Geography, Planning and Development
Sociology and Political Science

Other styles