How to format your references using the Genome citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Genome. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Seeman, N.C. 2003. DNA in a material world. Nature 421(6921): 427–431.
A journal article with 2 authors
Casasanto, D., and Gordon, P. 2005. Crying “Whorf.” Science 307(5716): 1721–1722.
A journal article with 3 authors
Standen, E.M., Du, T.Y., and Larsson, H.C.E. 2014. Developmental plasticity and the origin of tetrapods. Nature 513(7516): 54–58.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Xiao, Y., Zhang, T., Liu, C., Heckel, D.G., Li, X., Tabashnik, B.E., and Wu, K. 2014. Mis-splicing of the ABCC2 gene linked with Bt toxin resistance in Helicoverpa armigera. Sci. Rep. 4: 6184.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kaisler, S.H. 2005. Software Paradigms. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Camara, O., Mansi, T., Pop, M., Rhode, K., Sermesant, M., and Young, A. (Editors). 2014. Statistical Atlases and Computational Models of the Heart. Imaging and Modelling Challenges: 4th International Workshop, STACOM 2013, Held in Conjunction with MICCAI 2013, Nagoya, Japan, September 26, 2013. Revised Selected Papers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Müller, C., Gutierrez, A.M., Resinas, M., Fernandez, P., and Ruiz-Cortés, A. 2015. Towards Compensable SLAs. In Advances in Service-Oriented and Cloud Computing: Workshops of ESOCC 2014, Manchester, UK, September 2-4, 2014, Revised Selected Papers. Edited by G. Ortiz and C. Tran. Springer International Publishing, Cham. pp. 31–38.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Genome.

Blog post
Luntz, S. 2014, September 25. Are These The Earliest Animal Ancestors? IFLScience. Available from [accessed 30 October 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2005. Information Technology: OMB Can Make More Effective Use of Its Investment Reviews. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Katavic, I. 2014. Corporate social responsibility and sustainable competitive advantage: A case study of the cement industry. Doctoral dissertation, Northcentral University, Scottsdale, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Van Gelder, S.K.C. by L. 2005, February 17. Arts, Briefly; Can a Saint Wear Tights? New York Times: E2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Seeman 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Seeman 2003; Casasanto and Gordon 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Casasanto and Gordon 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Xiao et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleGenome
ISSN (print)0831-2796
ISSN (online)1480-3321
Molecular Biology
General Medicine

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