How to format your references using the Diagnostic Pathology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Diagnostic Pathology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Mesirov JP. Computer science. Accessible reproducible research. Science. 2010;327:415–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Gray RA, Wikswo JP. Cardiovascular disease: several small shocks beat one big one. Nature. 2011;475:181–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Dehaene-Lambertz G, Dehaene S, Hertz-Pannier L. Functional neuroimaging of speech perception in infants. Science. 2002;298:2013–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Gannoun A, Burton KW, Thomas LE, Parkinson IJ, Van Calsteren P, Schiano P. Osmium isotope heterogeneity in the constituent phases of mid-ocean ridge basalts. Science. 2004;303:70–2.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Wright JR, Cooper JE. Introduction to Aircraft Aeroelasticity and Loads. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
1. Wang XC. Water Cycle Management: A New Paradigm of Wastewater Reuse and Safety Control. Zhang C, Ma X, Luo L, editors. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Mihara H, Hayashi Y, Yamamoto M. Performance Evaluation of Fairness between High-Speed TCPs in Wireless Environment. In: Guyot V, editor. Advanced Infocomm Technology: 5th IEEE International Conference, ICAIT 2012, Paris, France, July 25-27, 2012 Revised Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013. p. 5–15.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Diagnostic Pathology.

Blog post
1. Hale T. Drug Lord’s Escaped Hippos Are Causing Chaos In Colombia. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. The Education of the New Public Executive. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1978 Jul. Report No.: 095393.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Xiao EA. Understanding Employment to Entrepreneurship Transitions among Women Working in the Tech Industry [Doctoral dissertation]. [Malibu, CA]: Pepperdine University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Leland J. Challenger Shows Himself Equal to World’s No. 1. New York Times. 2016 Nov 27;SP9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDiagnostic Pathology
AbbreviationDiagn. Pathol.
ISSN (online)1746-1596
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Pathology and Forensic Medicine

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