How to format your references using the Diagnostic Pathology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Diagnostic Pathology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Macilwain C. Time to cry out for academic freedom. Nature. 2015;527:277.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Chemla DS, Shah J. Many-body and correlation effects in semiconductors. Nature. 2001;411:549–57.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. West-Eberhard MJ, Smith JAC, Winter K. Plant science. Photosynthesis, reorganized. Science. 2011;332:311–2.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Rosengren AH, Jokubka R, Tojjar D, Granhall C, Hansson O, Li D-Q, et al. Overexpression of alpha2A-adrenergic receptors contributes to type 2 diabetes. Science. 2010;327:217–20.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. El-Haik B, Roy DM. Service Design for Six Sigma. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
1. Giga M-H. Nonlinear Partial Differential Equations: Asymptotic Behavior of Solutions and Self-Similar Solutions. Giga Y, Saal J, editors. Boston, MA: Birkhäuser; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Guo Q, Zhang H, Iliopoulos CS. Computing the Minimum Approximate λ-Cover of a String. In: Crestani F, Ferragina P, Sanderson M, editors. String Processing and Information Retrieval: 13th International Conference, SPIRE 2006, Glasgow, UK, October 11-13, 2006 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2006. p. 49–60.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Diagnostic Pathology.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Hovercraft Coming To Market in 2017 [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Launch Services New Entrant Certification Guide. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2013 Feb. Report No.: GAO-13-317R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Gonzales RA. Health care team effectiveness: The relationship between team task interdependence and group emotional competence [Doctoral dissertation]. [Phoenix, AZ]: University of Phoenix; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Crow K. Buses Parked at Ground Zero: Sensible or Sacrilege? New York Times. 2003 Mar 23;147.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDiagnostic Pathology
AbbreviationDiagn. Pathol.
ISSN (online)1746-1596
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Pathology and Forensic Medicine

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