How to format your references using the Diagnostic Pathology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Diagnostic Pathology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Loder N. UK advised to step up asteroid hunt. Nature. 2000;407:275.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Freeman MP, Watkins NW. Auroral and space physics. The heavens in a pile of sand. Science. 2002;298:979–80.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Jones MH, Bewsher D, Brown DS. Imaging of a circumsolar dust ring near the orbit of Venus. Science. 2013;342:960–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Jacques V, Wu E, Grosshans F, Treussart F, Grangier P, Aspect A, et al. Experimental realization of Wheeler’s delayed-choice gedanken experiment. Science. 2007;315:966–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Brown DJ. Cinnolines and Phthalazines: Supplement II. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2005.
An edited book
1. Alvarez HM, editor. Biology of Rhodococcus. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Rosales JC, García-Sánchez PA. Irreducible numerical semigroups. In: García-Sánchez PA, editor. Numerical Semigroups. New York, NY: Springer; 2009. p. 33–55.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Diagnostic Pathology.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Researchers Find Four New Species Of Tooth-Frogs. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Medicaid Managed Care: Access and Quality Requirements Specific to Low-Income and Other Special Needs Enrollees. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2004 Dec. Report No.: GAO-05-44R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Solari S. A unified anatomical theory and computational model of cognitive information processing in the mammalian brain and the introduction of DNA reco codes [Doctoral dissertation]. [La Jolla, CA]: University of California San Diego; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Billard M. His Mission: Beat Swords Into Baubles. New York Times. 2013 Jul 4;E6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDiagnostic Pathology
AbbreviationDiagn. Pathol.
ISSN (online)1746-1596
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Pathology and Forensic Medicine

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