How to format your references using the Genes and Environment citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Genes and Environment. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Giardini D. Geothermal quake risks must be faced. Nature. 2009;462:848–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Person AL, Raman IM. Purkinje neuron synchrony elicits time-locked spiking in the cerebellar nuclei. Nature. 2011;481:502–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Lee J, Abdeen AA, Kilian KA. Rewiring mesenchymal stem cell lineage specification by switching the biophysical microenvironment. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5188.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Head JW, Chapman CR, Strom RG, Fassett CI, Denevi BW, Blewett DT, et al. Flood volcanism in the northern high latitudes of Mercury revealed by MESSENGER. Science. 2011;333:1853–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Hopkins BR. The Law of Tax-Exempt Organizations. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2015.
An edited book
1. Cleland I, Guerrero L, Bravo J, editors. Ambient Assisted Living. ICT-based Solutions in Real Life Situations: 7th International Work-Conference, IWAAL 2015, Puerto Varas, Chile, December 1-4, 2015, Proceedings. 1st ed. 2015. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Smyth P. Data-Driven Discovery Using Probabilistic Hidden Variable Models. In: Balcázar JL, Long PM, Stephan F, editors. Algorithmic Learning Theory: 17th International Conference, ALT 2006, Barcelona, Spain, October 7-10, 2006 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2006. p. 28–28.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Genes and Environment.

Blog post
1. O`Callaghan J. A Version Of The EmDrive Is Apparently Being Sent To Space [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/space/a-version-of-the-emdrive-is-apparently-being-sent-to-space/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. The Audit Function in the Automatic Data Processing System. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1966 Jan. Report No.: 088037.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Mitchell JE. Job satisfaction and burnout among foreign -trained nurses in Saudi Arabia: A mixed-method study [Doctoral dissertation]. [Phoenix, AZ]: University of Phoenix; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Williams J. New Life for an Immortal Story. New York Times. 2017 Feb 3;BR4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleGenes and Environment
AbbreviationGenes Environ.
ISSN (online)1880-7062
ScopeGenetics
Environmental Science (miscellaneous)
Social Psychology

Other styles