How to format your references using the Genes and Environment citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Genes and Environment. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Scarpa T. Research funding: peer review at NIH. Science. 2006;311:41.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Martinez LM, Angell CA. A thermodynamic connection to the fragility of glass-forming liquids. Nature. 2001;410:663–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Yamashita F, Fukuyama E, Omura K. Estimation of fault strength: reconstruction of stress before the 1995 Kobe earthquake. Science. 2004;306:261–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Gleyzes S, Kuhr S, Guerlin C, Bernu J, Deléglise S, Busk Hoff U, et al. Quantum jumps of light recording the birth and death of a photon in a cavity. Nature. 2007;446:297–300.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Rossetti N. Managing Power Electronics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
1. Baptista R, Leitão J, editors. Entrepreneurship, Human Capital, and Regional Development: Labor Networks, Knowledge Flows, and Industry Growth. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Cohen S, Gulbinska MK, Puglia FJ. Lithium-ion Cell and Battery Safety. In: Gulbinska MK, editor. Lithium-ion Battery Materials and Engineering: Current Topics and Problems from the Manufacturing Perspective. London: Springer; 2014. p. 115–50.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Genes and Environment.

Blog post
1. Fang J. Why Some Geckos Don’t Stick. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Trends in Federal and State Capital Investment in Highways. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2003 Jun. Report No.: GAO-03-744R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Markarian LA. Strengths, challenges, and quality of life of ALS caregivers [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Kelly M. THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: The Democrats; On Road as Equal Partners In New Kind of Political Act. New York Times. 1992 Jul 22;A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleGenes and Environment
AbbreviationGenes Environ.
ISSN (online)1880-7062
Environmental Science (miscellaneous)
Social Psychology

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