How to format your references using the Genes and Environment citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Genes and Environment. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Scott JF. Applications of modern ferroelectrics. Science. 2007;315:954–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. König P, Verschure PFMJ. Neuroscience. Neurons in action. Science. 2002;296:1817–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Anderson B, Cole WW, Barrett SCH. Botany: specialized bird perch aids cross-pollination. Nature. 2005;435:41–2.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Martin RD, Maclarnon AM, Phillips JL, Dussubieux L, Williams PR, Dobyns WB. Comment on “The Brain of LB1, Homo floresiensis.” Science. 2006;312:999; author reply 999.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Cox DA. Galois Theory. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2004.
An edited book
1. Desolneux A. From Gestalt Theory to Image Analysis: A Probabilistic Approach. Moisan L, Morel J-M, editors. New York, NY: Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Rodriguez F, Bräuning A, Gerique A, Behling H, Volland F. Landscape History, Vegetation History, and Past Human Impacts. In: Bendix J, Beck E, Bräuning A, Makeschin F, Mosandl R, Scheu S, et al., editors. Ecosystem Services, Biodiversity and Environmental Change in a Tropical Mountain Ecosystem of South Ecuador. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013. p. 53–66.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Genes and Environment.

Blog post
1. Andrews R. UN Scientist Chides U.K. Government For Renewable Energy Failure. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. [Comments on Proposed Oregon Purchase of Rail Line With Oil Overcharge Settlement]. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1987 Oct. Report No.: B-226517.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Clayton-Clark C. Academic performance strategies implemented by successful California superintendents in low-performing school districts [Doctoral dissertation]. [Malibu, CA]: Pepperdine University; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Cooper M. The Met Offers Buyouts To 21 of Its Employees. New York Times. 2017 Sep 28;C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleGenes and Environment
AbbreviationGenes Environ.
ISSN (online)1880-7062
Environmental Science (miscellaneous)
Social Psychology

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