How to format your references using the Complex Analysis and Operator Theory citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Complex Analysis and Operator Theory. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Willyard, C.: Lifestyle: Breaking the cancer habit. Nature. 471, S16-7 (2011)
A journal article with 2 authors
Bjørnerud, M.G., Austrheim, H.: Geophysics: hot fluids or rock in eclogite metamorphism? Nature. 440, E4; discussion E4-5 (2006)
A journal article with 3 authors
Weir, A.A.S., Chappell, J., Kacelnik, A.: Shaping of hooks in New Caledonian crows. Science. 297, 981 (2002)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Bonhoeffer, S., Chappey, C., Parkin, N.T., Whitcomb, J.M., Petropoulos, C.J.: Evidence for positive epistasis in HIV-1. Science. 306, 1547–1550 (2004)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Quadbeck-Seeger, H.-J.: World of the Elements. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany (2007)
An edited book
White, J., Smythe, G. eds: Growth Factors and Cytokines in Skeletal Muscle Development, Growth, Regeneration and Disease. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2016)
A chapter in an edited book
Guang, X., Zhang, Z.: Random Linear Network Error Correction Coding. In: Zhang, Z. (ed.) Linear Network Error Correction Coding. pp. 85–94. Springer, New York, NY (2014)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Complex Analysis and Operator Theory.

Blog post
Andrew, D.: How Much Would It Cost To Be Batman?,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Federal Surplus Ships: Government Efforts to Address the Growing Backlog of Ships Awaiting Disposal. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1998)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Spillman, S.A.: Is More Always Better: Comparing the Effects of Single and Multiple Learning Channels on Academic Performance, (2014)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Baker, L.: Spurring Urban Growth in Vancouver, One Family at a Time, (2005)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleComplex Analysis and Operator Theory
AbbreviationComplex Anal. Oper. Theory
ISSN (print)1661-8254
ISSN (online)1661-8262
ScopeComputational Theory and Mathematics
Applied Mathematics
Computational Mathematics

Other styles