How to format your references using the Geobiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geobiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Camerer CF (2003) Psychology and economics. Strategizing in the brain. Science (New York, N.Y.) 300, 1673–1675.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ito T, Simons M (2011) Probing asthenospheric density, temperature, and elastic moduli below the western United States. Science (New York, N.Y.) 332, 947–951.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ahn CH, Rabe KM, Triscone J-M (2004) Ferroelectricity at the nanoscale: local polarization in oxide thin films and heterostructures. Science (New York, N.Y.) 303, 488–491.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ma H, Wallbank RWR, Chaji R, Li J, Suzuki Y, Jiggins C, Nathan A (2013) An impedance-based integrated biosensor for suspended DNA characterization. Scientific reports 3, 2730.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lißner K, Rug W (2016) Der Eurocode 5 für Deutschland Eurocode 5: Bemessung und Konstruktion von Holzbauten. Wilhelm Ernst & Sohn Verlag für Architektur und technische Wissenschaften GmbH & Co. KG, Berlin, Germany.
An edited book
Schwartz M, Verschik A (eds.) (2013) Successful Family Language Policy: Parents, Children and Educators in Interaction. Multilingual Education. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Jansen T, Van Hecke S (2011) Chapter Five: Merger with the EUCD and EDU. In: At Europe’s Service: The Origins and Evolution of the European People’s Party (ed. Van Hecke S). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 85–106.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geobiology.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) What To Do When You’re Dead: Science Edition. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2004) Intellectual Property: Economic Arrangements Among Small Webcasters and Third Parties and Their Effect on Royalties ( No. GAO-04-700). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McNamee L (2017) Best Practices in Higher Education Faculty Motivation (Doctoral dissertation).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dorman JL (2017) Art Deco Comfort by the French Quarter. New York Times TR4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Camerer, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Camerer, 2003; Ito & Simons, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ito & Simons, 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Ma et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeobiology
ISSN (print)1472-4677
ISSN (online)1472-4669
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
General Earth and Planetary Sciences
General Environmental Science

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