How to format your references using the Geobiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geobiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Siegel JM (2012) Evolution. Suppression of sleep for mating. Science (New York, N.Y.) 337, 1610–1611.
A journal article with 2 authors
Willimsky G, Blankenstein T (2005) Sporadic immunogenic tumours avoid destruction by inducing T-cell tolerance. Nature 437, 141–146.
A journal article with 3 authors
Georgellis D, Kwon O, Lin EC (2001) Quinones as the redox signal for the arc two-component system of bacteria. Science (New York, N.Y.) 292, 2314–2316.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Mumma MJ, Dello Russo N, DiSanti MA, Magee-Sauer K, Novak RE, Brittain S, Rettig T, McLean IS, Reuter DC, Xu LH (2001) Organic composition of C/1999 S4 (LINEAR): a comet formed near Jupiter? Science (New York, N.Y.) 292, 1334–1339.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cumming DJ (2010) Venture Capital. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Domingue J, Fensel D, Traverso P (eds.) (2009) Future Internet – FIS 2008: First Future Internet Symposium, FIS 2008 Vienna, Austria, September 29-30, 2008 Revised Selected Papers. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
De Schryver E, Calus L, Derycke L, Bachert C, Gevaert P (2013) Local Nasal Inflammation: T Cells and B Cells. In: Nasal Physiology and Pathophysiology of Nasal Disorders (ed. Önerci TM). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 47–67.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geobiology.

Blog post
Davis J (2016) More Illegal Ivory Now Seized Annually Than Cocaine. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1990) FAA Encountering Problems in Acquiring Major Automated Systems ( No. T-IMTEC-90-6). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Graham HH (2010) Leadership as co-influencing: A heuristic narrative study of dynamic co-emergence within the leadership relationship (Doctoral dissertation).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Casey N, MacKENNA E (2016) Doomed Jet’s Pilot Said to Have Reported ‘Fuel Emergency.’ New York Times A10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Siegel, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Willimsky & Blankenstein, 2005; Siegel, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Willimsky & Blankenstein, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Mumma et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeobiology
ISSN (print)1472-4677
ISSN (online)1472-4669
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
General Earth and Planetary Sciences
General Environmental Science

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