How to format your references using the Geobiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geobiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dickson D (2002) Anil Agarwal (1947-2002). Nature 415, 384.
A journal article with 2 authors
Roberts RG, Sutikna T (2013) Michael John Morwood (1950-2013). Nature 500, 401.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bazin E, Glémin S, Galtier N (2006) Population size does not influence mitochondrial genetic diversity in animals. Science (New York, N.Y.) 312, 570–572.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Stensmyr MC, Urru I, Collu I, Celander M, Hansson BS, Angioy A-M (2002) Pollination: Rotting smell of dead-horse arum florets. Nature 420, 625–626.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Biegelman MT, Biegelman DR (2010) Foreign Corrupt Practices Act Compliance Guidebook. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Adan RAH, Kaye WH (eds.) (2011) Behavioral Neurobiology of Eating Disorders. Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Andrievski RA, Khatchoyan AV (2016) Mechanical Actions Effect upon Nanomaterials. In: Nanomaterials in Extreme Environments: Fundamentals and Applications, Springer Series in Materials Science (ed. Khatchoyan A). Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 55–78.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geobiology.

Blog post
Davis J (2016) “Secret Ginger Gene” May Increase Risk Of Developing Skin Cancer. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1981) Appropriated Funds ( No. B-202472). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Warner KS (2014) The narrative structure of children’s books used in language therapy: An analysis (Doctoral dissertation).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Qiu L (2017) On Infrastructure, Claims That Don’t Quite Get Off the Ground. New York Times A13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dickson, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Dickson, 2002; Roberts & Sutikna, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Roberts & Sutikna, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Stensmyr et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeobiology
ISSN (print)1472-4677
ISSN (online)1472-4669
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
General Earth and Planetary Sciences
General Environmental Science

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