How to format your references using the Fuzzy Sets and Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Fuzzy Sets and Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
R. Brooks, The relationship between matter and life, Nature. 409 (2001) 409–411.
A journal article with 2 authors
J.D. Richter, N. Sonenberg, Regulation of cap-dependent translation by eIF4E inhibitory proteins, Nature. 433 (2005) 477–480.
A journal article with 3 authors
J. Bascompte, P. Jordano, J.M. Olesen, Asymmetric coevolutionary networks facilitate biodiversity maintenance, Science. 312 (2006) 431–433.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
A.J.J. Macintosh, L. Pelletier, A. Chiaradia, A. Kato, Y. Ropert-Coudert, Temporal fractals in seabird foraging behaviour: diving through the scales of time, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 1884.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
R. Shreves, Joomla!® Bible, Wiley Publishing, Inc., Indianapolis, IN, USA, 2009.
An edited book
E. Callus, E. Quadri, eds., Clinical Psychology and Congenital Heart Disease: Lifelong Psychological Aspects and Interventions, Springer, Milano, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
S. Rhebergen, B. Cockburn, Space-Time Hybridizable Discontinuous Galerkin Method for the Advection–Diffusion Equation on Moving and Deforming Meshes, in: C.A. de Moura, C.S. Kubrusly (Eds.), The Courant–Friedrichs–Lewy (CFL) Condition: 80 Years After Its Discovery, Birkhäuser, Boston, MA, 2013: pp. 45–63.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Fuzzy Sets and Systems.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Alternative Therapies: What’s The Harm?, IFLScience. (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Job Training Partnership Act: Information on Training, Placements, and Wages of Male and Female Participants, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1989.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
D.C. Koblick, Parallel high-precision orbit propagation using the modified Picard-Chebyshev method, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
E. Gabler, C. Dougherty, Woman ‘Madly in Love’ With the Gunman Says She Was Unaware of His Plans, New York Times. (2017) A15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleFuzzy Sets and Systems
AbbreviationFuzzy Sets and Systems
ISSN (print)0165-0114
ScopeArtificial Intelligence

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