How to format your references using the Fusion Engineering and Design citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Fusion Engineering and Design. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
G. Brumfiel, Physicists doubt that “corking” could help baseball’s big hitter, Nature. 423 (2003) 674.
A journal article with 2 authors
Y. Yang, S.G. Lisberger, Purkinje-cell plasticity and cerebellar motor learning are graded by complex-spike duration, Nature. 510 (2014) 529–532.
A journal article with 3 authors
L. Zhang, X. Zeng, X. Wang, Programmable hydrogenation of graphene for novel nanocages, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 3162.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Q. Hu, W. Guo, Y. Gao, R. Tang, D. Li, Molecular cloning and analysis of gonadal expression of Foxl2 in the rice-field eel Monopterus albus, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 6884.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
D. Wagner, E. Balog, Advanced Technical Analysis of ETFs, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2012.
An edited book
M.A. Lewis, M. Dietel, P.C. Scriba, W.K. Raff, eds., Biology und Epidemiology of Hormone Replacement Therapy: Discussions on Post-Menopausal Health, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
H.-J. Steiger, N. Etminan, D. Hänggi, Dissection of the Aneurysm and Principles of Clipping, in: N. Etminan, D. Hänggi (Eds.), Microsurgical Brain Aneurysms: Illustrated Concepts and Cases, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2015: pp. 57–66.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Fusion Engineering and Design.

Blog post
K. Hamilton, The New £5 Note Contains Animal Fat – And Vegetarians Are Furious, IFLScience. (2016).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Business Systems Modernization: IRS Has Satisfied Congressional Direction on the Custodial Accounting Project, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2001.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
F.-Y. Shen, A pedagogical and analytic comparison of Auguste Franchomme’s twelve Caprices, op. 7 and Alfredo Piatti’s twelve Caprices, op. 25, Doctoral dissertation, University of Cincinnati, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
E. Barry, S. Kishkovsky, Russian President Sends Obama Warning on European Missile System, New York Times. (2008) A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleFusion Engineering and Design
AbbreviationFusion Eng. Des.
ISSN (print)0920-3796
ScopeNuclear Energy and Engineering
Civil and Structural Engineering
Mechanical Engineering
General Materials Science

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