How to format your references using the Frontiers in Primary Immunodeficiencies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Primary Immunodeficiencies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bosch, X. (2001). Vatican approves use of animal transplants “to benefit humans.” Nature 413, 445.
A journal article with 2 authors
Abraham, R. G., and van Den Bergh, S. (2001). The morphological evolution of galaxies. Science 293, 1273–1278.
A journal article with 3 authors
Falnes, P. Ø., Johansen, R. F., and Seeberg, E. (2002). AlkB-mediated oxidative demethylation reverses DNA damage in Escherichia coli. Nature 419, 178–182.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Fritzsch, B., Piatigorsky, J., Tessmar-Raible, K., Jékely, G., Guy, K., Raible, F., et al. (2005). Ancestry of Photic and Mechanic Sensation? Science 308, 1113–1114.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Niemi, V., and Nyberg, K. (2006). Universal Mobile Telecommunications System Security. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Chakrabortty, A., and Ilić, M. D. eds. (2012). Control and Optimization Methods for Electric Smart Grids. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Elwan, N. M. (2011). “Epidemiology of Kaposi Sarcoma,” in Skin Cancer - A World-Wide Perspective, eds. R. Dummer, M. R. Pittelkow, K. Iwatsuki, A. Green, and N. M. Elwan (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 35–37.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Primary Immunodeficiencies.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. (2017). Scientists Use Snail Genomics To Fight Deadly Parasitic Disease. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1991). Embedded Computer Systems: C-17 Software Development Problems. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ortiz-Quiusky, S. (2015). Substance abuse, smoking, and depression among military veterans.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, B. (2017). A Romance With Long Distances. New York Times, C10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bosch, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Abraham and van Den Bergh, 2001; Bosch, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Abraham and van Den Bergh, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Fritzsch et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Primary Immunodeficiencies
AbbreviationFront. Immunol.
ISSN (online)1664-3224

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