How to format your references using the Frontiers in Primary Immunodeficiencies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Primary Immunodeficiencies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Grätzel, M. (2001). Photoelectrochemical cells. Nature 414, 338–344.
A journal article with 2 authors
Galant, R., and Carroll, S. B. (2002). Evolution of a transcriptional repression domain in an insect Hox protein. Nature 415, 910–913.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kirchner, J. W., Feng, X., and Neal, C. (2000). Fractal stream chemistry and its implications for contaminant transport in catchments. Nature 403, 524–527.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Alexopoulou, L., Holt, A. C., Medzhitov, R., and Flavell, R. A. (2001). Recognition of double-stranded RNA and activation of NF-kappaB by Toll-like receptor 3. Nature 413, 732–738.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kunz, W. (2012). Do Species Exist?. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Tubaro, P. (2014). Against the Hypothesis of the End of Privacy: An Agent-Based Modelling Approach to Social Media. , eds. A. A. Casilli and Y. Sarabi Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Blischke, W. R., Rezaul Karim, M., and Prabhakar Murthy, D. N. (2011). “Warranty Claims Data,” in Warranty Data Collection and Analysis Springer Series in Reliability Engineering., eds. M. R. Karim and D. N. P. Murthy (London: Springer), 61–77.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Primary Immunodeficiencies.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2017). Australian Biosecurity Officials Incinerate Rare Botanical Collection Due To “Paperwork Mix-Up.” IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1986). Glossary of EDP Terminology. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dill, K. D. (2012). Nonparametric alternative to Poly-k test in animal tumorigenicity studies.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K. (2001). Physically Unscathed, But Hardly Untouched. New York Times, 144.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Grätzel, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Grätzel, 2001; Galant and Carroll, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Galant and Carroll, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Alexopoulou et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Primary Immunodeficiencies
AbbreviationFront. Immunol.
ISSN (online)1664-3224

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