How to format your references using the Frontiers in Primary Immunodeficiencies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Primary Immunodeficiencies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Goldston, D. (2009). Budget instructions. Nature 461, 25.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ahn, S., and Lee, S. J. (2014). Nanoparticle role on the repeatability of stimuli-responsive nanocomposites. Sci. Rep. 4, 6624.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nelson, W. A., McCauley, E., and Wrona, F. J. (2005). Stage-structured cycles promote genetic diversity in a predator-prey system of Daphnia and algae. Nature 433, 413–417.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Hulme, M., Mahony, M., Beck, S., Görg, C., Hansjürgens, B., Hauck, J., et al. (2011). Science-policy interface: beyond assessments. Science 333, 697–698.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Vincoli, J. W. (2014). Basic Guide to System Safety. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Ahuja, S. (2012). Low Power Design with High-Level Power Estimation and Power-Aware Synthesis. , eds. A. Lakshminarayana and S. K. Shukla New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Bandt, C., Groth, A., Marwan, N., Romano, M. C., Thiel, M., Rosenblum, M., et al. (2008). “Analysis of Bivariate Coupling by Means of Recurrence,” in Mathematical Methods in Signal Processing and Digital Image Analysis Understanding Complex Systems., eds. R. Dahlhaus, J. Kurths, P. Maass, and J. Timmer (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 153–182.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Primary Immunodeficiencies.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2016). Onset Of Spring In The UK Is A Week Earlier Due To Artificial Lights. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1994). National Science Foundation: Better Use of Existing Resources Could Improve Program Administration. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Toosi, F. (2017). Decision Analysis Techniques for Adult Learners: Application to Leadership.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), S. K. (2002). World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Headscarves Banned From ID Photos. New York Times, A4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Goldston, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Goldston, 2009; Ahn and Lee, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ahn and Lee, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Hulme et al., 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Primary Immunodeficiencies
AbbreviationFront. Immunol.
ISSN (online)1664-3224

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