How to format your references using the Frontiers in Primary Immunodeficiencies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Primary Immunodeficiencies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Seewald, J. S. (2003). Organic-inorganic interactions in petroleum-producing sedimentary basins. Nature 426, 327–333.
A journal article with 2 authors
Conner, S. D., and Schmid, S. L. (2003). Regulated portals of entry into the cell. Nature 422, 37–44.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lutz, W., Cuaresma, J. C., and Sanderson, W. (2008). Economics. The demography of educational attainment and economic growth. Science 319, 1047–1048.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Weston, W., Zayas, J., Perez, R., George, J., and Jurecic, R. (2014). Dynamic equilibrium of heterogeneous and interconvertible multipotent hematopoietic cell subsets. Sci. Rep. 4, 5199.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Peterson, R. L. (2016). Trading on Sentiment. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Reitz, E. J. (2012). Environmental Archaeology. , ed. M. Shackley Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Fridkin, V., and Ducharme, S. (2014). “Ultrathin Ferroelectric Films,” in Ferroelectricity at the Nanoscale: Basics and Applications NanoScience and Technology., ed. S. Ducharme (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 29–65.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Primary Immunodeficiencies.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2017). A Schoolboy In The UK Pointed Out An Error To NASA On The ISS. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1981). Information on Prime Sponsor CETA Expenditures Related to Membership Organizations. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Loden, M. R. (2010). The rhetorical elephant in the room: How three political action committees are strategically [re]defining the U.S. Republican Party.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K. (2003). It Could Be Sharks Versus Sharks In This Rumble on the Waterfront. New York Times, 146.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Seewald, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Conner and Schmid, 2003; Seewald, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Conner and Schmid, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Weston et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Primary Immunodeficiencies
AbbreviationFront. Immunol.
ISSN (online)1664-3224

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