How to format your references using the Frontiers in Primary Immunodeficiencies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Primary Immunodeficiencies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Watson, M. (2015). Test the effects of ash on jet engines. Nature 520, 133.
A journal article with 2 authors
Reverter, D., and Lima, C. D. (2005). Insights into E3 ligase activity revealed by a SUMO-RanGAP1-Ubc9-Nup358 complex. Nature 435, 687–692.
A journal article with 3 authors
Schaller, T., Goujon, C., and Malim, M. H. (2012). AIDS/HIV. HIV interplay with SAMHD1. Science 335, 1313–1314.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Clubb, R., Rowcliffe, M., Lee, P., Mar, K. U., Moss, C., and Mason, G. J. (2008). Compromised survivorship in zoo elephants. Science 322, 1649.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hezaveh, A. (2007). SAS® 9 Study Guide. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Chinesta, F. (2007). Advances in Material Forming: Esaform 10 years on. , ed. E. Cueto Paris: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Ho, H. P., Wang, F., Papademetris, X., Blumberg, H. P., and Staib, L. H. (2011). “Integrated Parcellation and Normalization Using DTI Fasciculography,” in Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention – MICCAI 2011: 14th International Conference, Toronto, Canada, September 18-22, 2011, Proceedings, Part II Lecture Notes in Computer Science., eds. G. Fichtinger, A. Martel, and T. Peters (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 33–41.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Primary Immunodeficiencies.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015). Quantum Mechanics Just Got “Spookier.” IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1986). [Review of DOD Programs Funded With R&D Appropriations]. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Eaglin, M. (2012). A secondary data analysis of Latino families who successfully terminated with family preservation.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dynarski, S. (2015). To Gain a College Student, Eliminate a Form. New York Times, BU6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Watson, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Reverter and Lima, 2005; Watson, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Reverter and Lima, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Clubb et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Primary Immunodeficiencies
AbbreviationFront. Immunol.
ISSN (online)1664-3224

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