How to format your references using the Frontiers in Physiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Physiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P. (2005). A question of age. Nature 434, 1159.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jacob, Y., and Martienssen, R. (2012). Molecular biology. All packed up and ready to go. Science 336, 1391–1392.
A journal article with 3 authors
Daw, R., Finkelstein, J., and Helmer, M. (2012). Chemistry and energy. Nature 488, 293.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Ohman, J. C., Lovejoy, C. O., White, T. D., Eckhardt, R. B., Galik, K., and Kuperavage, A. J. (2005). Questions About Orrorin Femur. Science 307, 845b.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Marage, J.-P., and Mori, Y. (2013). Sonar and Underwater Acoustics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Moser, E., Semmler, W., Tragler, G., and Veliov, V. M. eds. (2014). Dynamic Optimization in Environmental Economics. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Taylor, P., Ni, P., Liu, K., Yang, X., and Guo, S. (2016). “Moving onto the World Stage,” in Global Research of Cities: A Case of Chengdu, eds. P. Ni and K. Liu (Singapore: Springer), 171–188.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Physiology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014). Stanford Scientists Develop A Way To Wirelessly Transfer Power To Deep Tissue Implants. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2016). Aviation Security: TSA Should Ensure Testing Data Are Complete and Fully Used to Improve Screener Training and Operations. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wilson, B. R. (2009). A correlational study: Parental involvement to student achievement in public education.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, M. (2010). For Stepping Across a Bridge. New York Times, E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Smaglik, 2005; Jacob and Martienssen, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jacob and Martienssen, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Ohman et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Physiology
AbbreviationFront. Physiol.
ISSN (online)1664-042X
Physiology (medical)

Other styles