How to format your references using the Frontiers in Physiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Physiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sardar, Z. (2007). Beyond the troubled relationship. Nature 448, 131–133.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ohtomo, A., and Hwang, H. Y. (2004). A high-mobility electron gas at the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 heterointerface. Nature 427, 423–426.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bahmani, B., Bacon, D., and Anvari, B. (2013). Erythrocyte-derived photo-theranostic agents: hybrid nano-vesicles containing indocyanine green for near infrared imaging and therapeutic applications. Sci. Rep. 3, 2180.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Wilkinson, J. J., Stoffell, B., Wilkinson, C. C., Jeffries, T. E., and Appold, M. S. (2009). Anomalously metal-rich fluids form hydrothermal ore deposits. Science 323, 764–767.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Leach, M., Drummond, M., and Doig, A. (2013). Practical Flow Cytometry in Haematology Diagnosis. Oxford: John Wiley & Sons.
An edited book
Ikhmayies, S. J., Li, B., Carpenter, J. S., Hwang, J.-Y., Monteiro, S. N., Li, J., et al. eds. (2016). Characterization of Minerals, Metals, and Materials 2016. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Kamaloni, S. M. (2016). “What Are You Doing Here? The Politics of Race and Belonging at the Airport,” in Security, Race, Biopower: Essays on Technology and Corporeality, eds. H. Randell-Moon and R. Tippet (London: Palgrave Macmillan UK), 61–78.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Physiology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014). Four Eyed Harvestman Fossil Helps Shed Light On Arachnid Evolution. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2004). Telecommunications: Intelsat Privatization and the Implementation of the ORBIT Act. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Schoettler, M. R. (2017). A Publish-Subscribe Framework for Embedded Systems: Simplifying the Development Process.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, B. (2017). Terrors of an Unfixed Reality. New York Times, C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sardar, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Ohtomo and Hwang, 2004; Sardar, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ohtomo and Hwang, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Wilkinson et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Physiology
AbbreviationFront. Physiol.
ISSN (online)1664-042X
Physiology (medical)

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