How to format your references using the Frontiers in Physiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Physiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Irvine, R. (2007). Cell signaling. The art of the soluble. Science 316, 845–846.
A journal article with 2 authors
Watson, A. J. A., and Williams, J. M. J. (2010). Chemistry. The give and take of alcohol activation. Science 329, 635–636.
A journal article with 3 authors
Drinnenberg, I. A., Fink, G. R., and Bartel, D. P. (2011). Compatibility with killer explains the rise of RNAi-deficient fungi. Science 333, 1592.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Molegraaf, H. J. A., Presura, C., van Der Marel, D., Kes, P. H., and Li, M. (2002). Superconductivity-induced transfer of in-plane spectral weight in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+delta. Science 295, 2239–2241.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Darling-Hammond, L., Meyerson, D., LaPointe, M., Terry Orr, M., Barber, M., Cohen, C., et al. (2009). Preparing Principals for a Changing World. San Francisco, CA, USA: Jossey-Bas.
An edited book
Arenas, M., Corcho, O., Simperl, E., Strohmaier, M., d’Aquin, M., Srinivas, K., et al. eds. (2015). The Semantic Web - ISWC 2015: 14th International Semantic Web Conference, Bethlehem, PA, USA, October 11-15, 2015, Proceedings, Part I. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Hagras, H., and Wagner, C. (2011). “Artefact Adaptation in Ambient Intelligent Environments,” in Next Generation Intelligent Environments: Ambient Adaptive Systems, eds. W. Minker and T. Heinroth (New York, NY: Springer), 127–151.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Physiology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014). Indonesian Mimic Octopus Is The Ultimate Master of Disguise. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2000). Commercial Motor Vehicles: Effectiveness of Actions Being Taken to Improve Motor Carrier Safety Is Unknown. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rodriguez, G. (2013). Undocumented students in higher education: A grant project.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dynarski, S. (2015). The Power of a Simple Nudge. New York Times, BU6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Irvine, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Irvine, 2007; Watson and Williams, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Watson and Williams, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Molegraaf et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Physiology
AbbreviationFront. Physiol.
ISSN (online)1664-042X
Physiology (medical)

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