How to format your references using the Frontiers in Non-Coding RNA citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Non-Coding RNA. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schindel, D. E. (2010). Biology without borders. Nature 467, 779–781.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mühlenbruch, B., and Jochimsen, M. A. (2013). Research policy: Only wholesale reform will bring equality. Nature 495, 40–42.
A journal article with 3 authors
Syntichaki, P., Topalidou, I., and Thireos, G. (2000). The Gcn5 bromodomain co-ordinates nucleosome remodelling. Nature 404, 414–417.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Ramaley, P. A., French, N., Kaleebu, P., Gilks, C., Whitworth, J., and Hill, A. V. S. (2002). HIV in Africa (Communication arising): chemokine-receptor genes and AIDS risk. Nature 417, 140.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Müller, G., and Ponick, B. (2005). Grundlagen elektrischer Maschinen. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Hassan, R., Yusoff, M., Ismail, Z., Amin, N. M., and Fadzil, M. A. eds. (2014). InCIEC 2013: Proceedings of the International Civil and Infrastructure Engineering Conference 2013. Singapore: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Zhuang, Z., and Kwok, S. (2012). “Optimizing Streaming Server Selection for CDN-Delivered Live Streaming,” in Internet and Distributed Computing Systems: 5th International Conference, IDCS 2012, Wuyishan, Fujian, China, November 21-23, 2012. Proceedings Lecture Notes in Computer Science., eds. Y. Xiang, M. Pathan, X. Tao, and H. Wang (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 57–70.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Non-Coding RNA.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014). Mysterious Satellite Sparks Concerns That Russia Has Developed A Space Weapon. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1992). Space Station: Status of Financial Reserves. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Parsons, J. R. (2010). Throwing a wrench in the translational machinery: Discovery of RNA ligands by fluorescence techniques.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Bray, C., and Kanter, J. (2017). E.U. Proposal May Shrink London’s Financial Footprint. New York Times, B2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schindel, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Schindel, 2010; Mühlenbruch and Jochimsen, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Mühlenbruch and Jochimsen, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Ramaley et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Non-Coding RNA
AbbreviationFront. Genet.
ISSN (online)1664-8021
Molecular Medicine

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