How to format your references using the Frontiers in Non-Coding RNA citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Non-Coding RNA. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rice, C. (2011). Perspective: miles to go before we sleep. Nature 474, S8.
A journal article with 2 authors
Magnus, D., and Cho, M. K. (2005). Ethics. Issues in oocyte donation for stem cell research. Science 308, 1747–1748.
A journal article with 3 authors
Morran, L. T., Parmenter, M. D., and Phillips, P. C. (2009). Mutation load and rapid adaptation favour outcrossing over self-fertilization. Nature 462, 350–352.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Chen, X. H., Wu, T., Wu, G., Liu, R. H., Chen, H., and Fang, D. F. (2008). Superconductivity at 43 K in SmFeAsO1-xFx. Nature 453, 761–762.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Karlson, B., Bria, A., Lind, J., Lönnqvist, P., and Norlin, C. (2005). Wireless Foresight. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Jurdak, M. (2016). Social and Political Dimensions of Mathematics Education: Current Thinking. , eds. R. Vithal, E. de Freitas, P. Gates, and D. Kollosche Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Spaccasassi, C., and Koutavas, V. (2014). “Towards Efficient Abstractions for Concurrent Consensus,” in Trends in Functional Programming: 14th International Symposium, TFP 2013, Provo, UT, USA, May 14-16, 2013, Revised Selected Papers Lecture Notes in Computer Science., ed. J. McCarthy (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 76–90.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Non-Coding RNA.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015). Bizarre New Virus Discovered Beneath The Ocean Floor. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1988). The Fight Against Infant Mortality. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Koenig, W. E. (2010). Leadership for the whole in the mythic field of C. G. Jung’s unconscious processes.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Andrews, M. (2017). Venus Williams Faces Wrongful-Death Suit. New York Times, D6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Rice, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Magnus and Cho, 2005; Rice, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Magnus and Cho, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Chen et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Non-Coding RNA
AbbreviationFront. Genet.
ISSN (online)1664-8021
Molecular Medicine

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