How to format your references using the Frontiers in Neurorobotics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Neurorobotics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Strom, S. L. (2008). Microbial ecology of ocean biogeochemistry: a community perspective. Science 320, 1043–1045.
A journal article with 2 authors
Nakatani, H., and Yamaguchi, Y. (2014). Quick concurrent responses to global and local cognitive information underlie intuitive understanding in board-game experts. Sci. Rep. 4, 5894.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sanderson, M. J., McMahon, M. M., and Steel, M. (2011). Terraces in phylogenetic tree space. Science 333, 448–450.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Ule, J., Jensen, K. B., Ruggiu, M., Mele, A., Ule, A., and Darnell, R. B. (2003). CLIP identifies Nova-regulated RNA networks in the brain. Science 302, 1212–1215.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kamso, N., and Ng, T. M. (2013). Investing in Islamic Funds. Singapore Pte. Ltd.: John Wiley & Sons.
An edited book
Zuccon, G., Geva, S., Joho, H., Scholer, F., Sun, A., and Zhang, P. eds. (2015). Information Retrieval Technology: 11th Asia Information Retrieval Societies Conference, AIRS 2015, Brisbane, QLD, Australia, December 2-4, 2015. Proceedings. 1st ed. 2015. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Dede, E. M., Lee, J., and Nomura, T. (2014). “Optimization Methods for Electromechanical Systems,” in Multiphysics Simulation: Electromechanical System Applications and Optimization Simulation Foundations, Methods and Applications., eds. J. Lee and T. Nomura (London: Springer), 41–59.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Neurorobotics.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015). New And Inexpensive Material Captures Oil But Lets Water Through. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1982). Recommendation Concerning Claim by Teacher for Backpay in DOD Overseas Dependents Schools. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lee, A. M. (2010). Examining the socially responsible leadership development outcomes of study abroad experiences for college seniors.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hollander, S. (2000). Player’s Dream Takes a Detour in the Bronx. New York Times, D8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Strom, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Strom, 2008; Nakatani and Yamaguchi, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Nakatani and Yamaguchi, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Ule et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Neurorobotics
AbbreviationFront. Neurorobot.
ISSN (online)1662-5218
ScopeArtificial Intelligence
Biomedical Engineering

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