How to format your references using the Frontiers in Neurorobotics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Neurorobotics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Simon, S. H. (2009). Physics. A sound (and light) way to measure confined electrons. Science 324, 1022–1023.
A journal article with 2 authors
Nagamatsu, S., and Ohara-Imaizumi, M. (2007). Cell biology. IP7 debut in insulin release. Science 318, 1249–1250.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ooi, T. L., Wu, B., and He, Z. J. (2001). Distance determined by the angular declination below the horizon. Nature 414, 197–200.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Janssen, B. J. C., Read, R. J., Brünger, A. T., and Gros, P. (2007). Crystallography: crystallographic evidence for deviating C3b structure. Nature 448, E1-2; discussion E2-3.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kazovsky, L. G., Cheng, N., Shaw, W.-T., Gutierrez, D., and Wong, S.-W. (2011). Broadband Optical Access Networks. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Nikolaenko, V. P., and Astakhov, Y. S. eds. (2015). Orbital Fractures: A Physician’s Manual. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Sezgin, E., and Özkan, S. (2014). “Assessment of Information Technology Use in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: Empirical Investigation in Five Cases,” in Information Systems for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises: State of Art of IS Research in SMEs Progress in IS., eds. J. Devos, H. van Landeghem, and D. Deschoolmeester (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 97–121.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Neurorobotics.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2017). What Causes Whale Mass Strandings? IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2002). Transportation Infrastructure: Alternative Financing Mechanisms for Surface Transportation. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Alnuaimi, A. N. (2017). The Outside-In Method for Sustainable Design Within the Built Environment Spatial Layers.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, K. (2007). I’m a Lumber Jack (Omelet, That Is). New York Times, NJ6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Simon, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Nagamatsu and Ohara-Imaizumi, 2007; Simon, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Nagamatsu and Ohara-Imaizumi, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Janssen et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Neurorobotics
AbbreviationFront. Neurorobot.
ISSN (online)1662-5218
ScopeArtificial Intelligence
Biomedical Engineering

Other styles