How to format your references using the Frontiers in Neurorobotics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Neurorobotics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hejtmancik, J. F. (2015). Ophthalmology: Cataracts dissolved. Nature 523, 540–541.
A journal article with 2 authors
Marek, P. E., and Bond, J. E. (2006). Biodiversity hotspots: rediscovery of the world’s leggiest animal. Nature 441, 707.
A journal article with 3 authors
O’Gorman, C. M., Fuller, H. T., and Dyer, P. S. (2009). Discovery of a sexual cycle in the opportunistic fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. Nature 457, 471–474.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Revilla, R. I., Li, X.-J., Yang, Y.-L., and Wang, C. (2014). Large electric field-enhanced-hardness effect in a SiO2 film. Sci. Rep. 4, 4523.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Davis, J. H. (2011). Statistics for Compensation. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Knobloch, E., Komatsu, H., and Liu, D. eds. (2013). Seki, Founder of Modern Mathematics in Japan: A Commemoration on His Tercentenary. Tokyo: Springer Japan.
A chapter in an edited book
Kitoogo, F. E., and Bitwayiki, C. (2010). “e-Justice Implementation at a National Scale: The Ugandan Case,” in E-Infrastructures and E-Services on Developing Countries: First International ICST Conference, AFRICOM 2009, Maputo, Mozambique, December 3-4, 2009. Proceedings Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering., eds. A. Villafiorita, R. Saint-Paul, and A. Zorer (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 40–49.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Neurorobotics.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015). The Mercury Level In Your Tuna Is Getting Higher. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2005). Independent Media Development Abroad: Challenges Exist in Implementing U.S. Efforts and Measuring Results. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Abraham, S. R. (2015). Using Self-Monitoring and Goal Setting to Increase Swimming in Adults.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg, B. (2016). Tennis Star Is Stabbed in Invasion of Home. New York Times, B10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hejtmancik, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Marek and Bond, 2006; Hejtmancik, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Marek and Bond, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Revilla et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Neurorobotics
AbbreviationFront. Neurorobot.
ISSN (online)1662-5218
ScopeArtificial Intelligence
Biomedical Engineering

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