How to format your references using the Frontiers in Neurorobotics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Neurorobotics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Flower, R. (2002). Drug receptors: a long engagement. Nature 415, 587.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wood, B. J., and Halliday, A. N. (2005). Cooling of the Earth and core formation after the giant impact. Nature 437, 1345–1348.
A journal article with 3 authors
Messenger, S., Keller, L. P., and Lauretta, D. S. (2005). Supernova olivine from cometary dust. Science 309, 737–741.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Egolf, D. A., Melnikov, I. V., IV, Pesch, W., and Ecke, R. E. (2000). Mechanisms of extensive spatiotemporal chaos in Rayleigh-Benard convection. Nature 404, 733–736.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hermans, J., and Lentz, B. (2013). Equilibria and Kinetics of Biological Macromolecules. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Cremers, D., Reid, I., Saito, H., and Yang, M.-H. eds. (2015). Computer Vision -- ACCV 2014: 12th Asian Conference on Computer Vision, Singapore, Singapore, November 1-5, 2014, Revised Selected Papers, Part V. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Benirschke, K., Burton, G. J., and Baergen, R. N. (2012). “Early Development of the Human Placenta,” in Pathology of the Human Placenta, eds. G. J. Burton and R. N. Baergen (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 41–53.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Neurorobotics.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2013). Comet ISON: The Real Song of Ice and Fire. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1995). High Risk Series: Student Financial Aid. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Woerner, L. C. (2010). Complicated grief: A case study of pathological bereavement.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Traub, J. (2017). Hard Truths About Refugees. New York Times, A27.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Flower, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Flower, 2002; Wood and Halliday, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wood and Halliday, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Egolf et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Neurorobotics
AbbreviationFront. Neurorobot.
ISSN (online)1662-5218
ScopeArtificial Intelligence
Biomedical Engineering

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