How to format your references using the Frontiers in Neurology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Neurology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ferster D. Neuroscience. Blocking plasticity in the visual cortex. Science (2004) 303:1619–1621.
A journal article with 2 authors
Grumbine RE, Xu J. Environment and development. Mekong hydropower development. Science (2011) 332:178–179.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nieves V, Willis JK, Patzert WC. GLOBAL WARMING. Recent hiatus caused by decadal shift in Indo-Pacific heating. Science (2015) 349:532–535.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Licciardi JM, Schaefer JM, Taggart JR, Lund DC. Holocene glacier fluctuations in the Peruvian Andes indicate northern climate linkages. Science (2009) 325:1677–1679.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Charalambides CA. Combinatorial Methods in Discrete Distributions: Charalambides/Combinatorial. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. (2005).
An edited book
Manzoni G de, Roviello F, Siquini W eds. Surgery in the Multimodal Management of Gastric Cancer. Milano: Springer (2012).
A chapter in an edited book
De Haes S, Van Grembergen W. “COBIT as a Framework for Enterprise Governance of IT,” in Enterprise Governance of Information Technology: Achieving Alignment and Value, Featuring COBIT 5 Management for Professionals., ed. W. Van Grembergen (Cham: Springer International Publishing), 103–128.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Neurology.

Blog post
Hale T. “Xenomorph Baby” Pokes His Feet Out Through His Mom’s Uterus. IFLScience (2016) Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018]


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Federal Student Loans: Borrower Interest Rates Cannot Be Set in Advance to Precisely and Consistently Balance Federal Revenues and Costs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office (2014).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Diddi V. Digitally Controlled Microwave Power Amplifier Design Techniques for Wireless Communications. (2017)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon M. Sports Access For Disabled Is Clarified. New York Times (2013)D5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Neurology
AbbreviationFront. Neurol.
ISSN (online)1664-2295
ScopeClinical Neurology

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