How to format your references using the Frontiers in Neurology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Neurology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ransohoff RM. Physiology. Good barriers make good neighbors. Science (2014) 346:36–37.
A journal article with 2 authors
Schwabe RF, Wang TC. Cancer. Bacteria deliver a genotoxic hit. Science (2012) 338:52–53.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kaner RB, Gilman JJ, Tolbert SH. Materials science. Designing superhard materials. Science (2005) 308:1268–1269.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Holtgrieve GW, Schindler DE, Hobbs WO, Leavitt PR, Ward EJ, Bunting L, Chen G, Finney BP, Gregory-Eaves I, Holmgren S, et al. A coherent signature of anthropogenic nitrogen deposition to remote watersheds of the Northern Hemisphere. Science (2011) 334:1545–1548.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Joyce PM, Lipton D. Lamentations Through the Centuries. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Ltd (2013).
An edited book
Ghilardi S, Sebastiani R eds. Frontiers of Combining Systems: 7th International Symposium, FroCoS 2009, Trento, Italy, September 16-18, 2009. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer (2009). X, 383 p p.
A chapter in an edited book
Milone EF, Wilson WJF. “Comets and Meteors.,” In: Wilson WJF, editor. Solar System Astrophysics: Planetary Atmospheres and the Outer Solar System. Astronomy and Astrophysics Library. New York, NY: Springer (2014). p. 597–646

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Neurology.

Blog post
Davis J. The Ganges And Yamuna Rivers Given Same Legal Rights As Humans. IFLScience (2017) [Accessed October 30, 2018]


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Air Traffic Control Modernization: Status of the Current Program and Planning for the Next Generation Air Transportation System. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office (2006).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mazon WE. The effect of the Breath BuilderTM on various lung functions and musical performance abilities of clarinet players. [Doctoral dissertation]. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona (2009).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh MW. In Congress, a Bill Seeks to Tie Municipal Borrowing Power to Public Pension Disclosure. New York Times (2013)B4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Neurology
AbbreviationFront. Neurol.
ISSN (online)1664-2295
ScopeClinical Neurology

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