How to format your references using the Frontiers in Neuro-Ophthalmology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Neuro-Ophthalmology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Staunton, H. (2008). Arousal by stimulation of deep-brain nuclei. Nature 452, E1; discussion E1-2.
A journal article with 2 authors
Digicaylioglu, M., and Lipton, S. A. (2001). Erythropoietin-mediated neuroprotection involves cross-talk between Jak2 and NF-kappaB signalling cascades. Nature 412, 641–647.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wookey, J., Kendall, J.-M., and Barruol, G. (2002). Mid-mantle deformation inferred from seismic anisotropy. Nature 415, 777–780.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Yang-Hartwich, Y., Gurrea-Soteras, M., Sumi, N., Joo, W. D., Holmberg, J. C., Craveiro, V., et al. (2014). Ovulation and extra-ovarian origin of ovarian cancer. Sci. Rep. 4, 6116.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kramer, A., and Legeard, B. (2016). Model-Based Testing Essentials. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Schwartz, R. A., Byrne, J. A., and Colaninno, A. eds. (2009). Technology and Regulation: How Are They Driving Our Markets?. Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Tomppo, E., Heikkinen, J., Henttonen, H. M., Ihalainen, A., Katila, M., Mäkelä, H., et al. (2011). “Discussion,” in Designing and Conducting a Forest Inventory - case: 9th National Forest Inventory of Finland Managing Forest Ecosystems., eds. J. Heikkinen, H. M. Henttonen, A. Ihalainen, M. Katila, H. Mäkelä, T. Tuomainen, et al. (Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands), 179–184.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Neuro-Ophthalmology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015). Spectacular New Images Of Pluto Released. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2001). Customs Service Modernization: Results of Review of First Automated Commercial Environment Expenditure Plan. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
ELBoushi, T. C. (2010). Evaluating ethics training and the outcome on leadership decision making: A phenomenological study.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik, J. (2016). Reviving a Snow Globe Town and Its Comfortable Nostalgia. New York Times, C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Staunton, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Digicaylioglu and Lipton, 2001; Staunton, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Digicaylioglu and Lipton, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Yang-Hartwich et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Neuro-Ophthalmology
AbbreviationFront. Neurol.
ISSN (online)1664-2295
ScopeClinical Neurology

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