How to format your references using the Canadian Journal of Forest Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Canadian Journal of Forest Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brunini, A. 2006. Origin of the obliquities of the giant planets in mutual interactions in the early Solar System. Nature 440(7088): 1163–1165.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hirose, T., and Horvitz, H.R. 2013. An Sp1 transcription factor coordinates caspase-dependent and -independent apoptotic pathways. Nature 500(7462): 354–358.
A journal article with 3 authors
Delsuc, F., Phillips, M.J., and Penny, D. 2003. Comment on “Hexapod origins: monophyletic or paraphyletic?” Science 301(5639): 1482; author reply 1482.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ceci, M., Gaviraghi, C., Gorrini, C., Sala, L.A., Offenhäuser, N., Marchisio, P.C., and Biffo, S. 2003. Release of eIF6 (p27BBP) from the 60S subunit allows 80S ribosome assembly. Nature 426(6966): 579–584.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety. 2010. Guidelines for Acquisition Evaluation and Post Merger Integration. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Duff, A., Lepora, N.F., Mura, A., Prescott, T.J., and Verschure, P.F.M.J. (Editors). 2014. Biomimetic and Biohybrid Systems: Third International Conference, Living Machines 2014, Milan, Italy, July 30 – August 1, 2014. Proceedings. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Laron, Z. 2011. Diagnosis of Laron Syndrome. In Laron Syndrome - From Man to Mouse: Lessons from Clinical and Experimental Experience. Edited by Z. Laron and J. Kopchick. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. pp. 27–28.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Canadian Journal of Forest Research.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. 2016, July 6. Concerned About Porn? Here’s What We Should Really Worry About. IFLScience. Available from [accessed 30 October 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1999. Federal Communications Commission: Direct Broadcast Satellite Public Interest Obligations. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Roan, R. 2017. Depth and Digital in Conversation: Practicing Marriage and Family Therapy Directly With Video Game Avatars. Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute, Carpinteria, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J. 2017, June 28. Their Run Together May Be Nearing an End. New York Times: B8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Brunini 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Brunini 2006; Hirose and Horvitz 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hirose and Horvitz 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Ceci et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleCanadian Journal of Forest Research
AbbreviationCan. J. For. Res.
ISSN (print)0045-5067
ISSN (online)1208-6037
Global and Planetary Change

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