How to format your references using the Canadian Journal of Forest Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Canadian Journal of Forest Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Moore, C.M. 2014. Ocean Science. Microbial proteins and oceanic nutrient cycles. Science 345(6201): 1120–1121.
A journal article with 2 authors
Noda, H., and Lapusta, N. 2013. Stable creeping fault segments can become destructive as a result of dynamic weakening. Nature 493(7433): 518–521.
A journal article with 3 authors
Deng, B., Zhang, R.Q., and Shi, X.Q. 2014. New insight into the spin-conserving excitation of the negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond. Sci. Rep. 4: 5144.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Day, P.K., LeDuc, H.G., Mazin, B.A., Vayonakis, A., and Zmuidzinas, J. 2003. A broadband superconducting detector suitable for use in large arrays. Nature 425(6960): 817–821.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
van Vreeswijk, M., Broersen, J., and Schurink, G. 2014. Mindfulness and Schema Therapy. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Daneva, M., and Pastor, O. (Editors). 2016. Requirements Engineering: Foundation for Software Quality: 22nd International Working Conference, REFSQ 2016, Gothenburg, Sweden, March 14-17, 2016, Proceedings. In 1st ed. 2016. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
DeHaven, W.I., and Conner, D.P. 2014. The Effects of Food on Drug Bioavailability and Bioequivalence. In FDA Bioequivalence Standards. Edited by L.X. Yu and B.V. Li. Springer, New York, NY. pp. 95–118.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Canadian Journal of Forest Research.

Blog post
Luntz, S. 2014, September 17. New Method Of Producing Pluripotent Stem Cells Makes Fewer, But Better Cells. IFLScience. Available from [accessed 30 October 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2001. Restructuring of the District of Columbia Department of Public Works’ Division of Transportation. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ficchi, G. 2017. A Qualitative Inquiry: Parental Approaches and Expectations, What Role Does Disability Play? Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dominus, S. 2016, January 19. Make ‘Em Laugh. New York Times: MM38.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Moore 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Noda and Lapusta 2013; Moore 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Noda and Lapusta 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Day et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleCanadian Journal of Forest Research
AbbreviationCan. J. For. Res.
ISSN (print)0045-5067
ISSN (online)1208-6037
Global and Planetary Change

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