How to format your references using the Canadian Journal of Forest Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Canadian Journal of Forest Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hagmann, M. 2000. PUBLIC HEALTH: Deaths Among Heroin Users Present a Puzzle. Science 288(5473): 1941a.
A journal article with 2 authors
Campbell, E., and Salathé, M. 2013. Complex social contagion makes networks more vulnerable to disease outbreaks. Sci. Rep. 3: 1905.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mayadas, A.F., Bourne, J., and Bacsich, P. 2009. Online education today. Science 323(5910): 85–89.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Shultis, D.D., Purdy, M.D., Banchs, C.N., and Wiener, M.C. 2006. Outer membrane active transport: structure of the BtuB:TonB complex. Science 312(5778): 1396–1399.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stanoyevitch, A. 2004. Introduction to Numerical Ordinary and Partial Differential Equations Using MATLAB®. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Heng, S.-H., Wright, R.N., and Goi, B.-M. (Editors). 2010. Cryptology and Network Security: 9th International Conference, CANS 2010, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, December 12-14, 2010. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Swoboda, B., and Elsner, S. 2014. What our Name Stands for: Retail Store Owners and their Employees in Store Flyer Advertising. In European Retail Research: 2013, Volume 27, Issue I. Edited by H. Schramm-Klein, T. Foscht, D. Morschett, T. Rudolph, P. Schnedlitz, and B. Swoboda. Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden, Wiesbaden. pp. 59–78.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Canadian Journal of Forest Research.

Blog post
Fang, J. 2016, June 22. How Mongoose Moms Protect Their Pups Before They’re Born. IFLScience. Available from [accessed 30 October 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2000. National Airspace System: Persistent Problems in FAA’s New Navigation System Highlight Need for Periodic Reevaluation. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Campbell, A.B. 2015. An analysis of the demography and habitat usage of Roatán’s spiny-tailed iguana, Ctenosaura oedirhina. Doctoral dissertation, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Crow, K. 2001, November 11. Fireman’s Spirit Is the Wind Beneath a Bird’s Wings. New York Times: 146.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hagmann 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Hagmann 2000; Campbell and Salathé 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Campbell and Salathé 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Shultis et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleCanadian Journal of Forest Research
AbbreviationCan. J. For. Res.
ISSN (print)0045-5067
ISSN (online)1208-6037
Global and Planetary Change

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