How to format your references using the Canadian Journal of Forest Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Canadian Journal of Forest Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Balch, A.L. 2011. Chemistry. H₂O in a desert of carbon atoms. Science 333(6042): 531–532.
A journal article with 2 authors
Matzke, M.A., and Matzke, A.J. 2000. Cloning problems don’t surprise plant biologists. Science 288(5475): 2318b.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gu, C., Jan, Y.N., and Jan, L.Y. 2003. A conserved domain in axonal targeting of Kv1 (Shaker) voltage-gated potassium channels. Science 301(5633): 646–649.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Bergles, D.E., Roberts, J.D., Somogyi, P., and Jahr, C.E. 2000. Glutamatergic synapses on oligodendrocyte precursor cells in the hippocampus. Nature 405(6783): 187–191.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Manuele, F.A. 2005. On the Practice of Safety. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Burneo, J.G., Demaerschalk, B.M., and Jenkins, M.E. (Editors). 2012. Neurology: An Evidence-Based Approach. In 1st edition. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Kari, J., Salo, V., and Törmä, I. 2014. Trace Complexity of Chaotic Reversible Cellular Automata. In Reversible Computation: 6th International Conference, RC 2014, Kyoto, Japan, July 10-11, 2014. Proceedings. Edited by S. Yamashita and S.-I. Minato. Springer International Publishing, Cham. pp. 54–66.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Canadian Journal of Forest Research.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2015, March 12. Ultrasound Could Treat Alzheimer’s Disease. IFLScience. Available from [accessed 30 October 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2001. Tax Systems Modernization: Results of Review of IRS’ Third Expenditure Plan. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chun, A.R. 2017. Physiological, Ultrastructure, and Preliminary Genomic Characterization of the Marine Protist Thraustochytrium sp. LLF1b (class Labyrinthulomycetes). Doctoral dissertation, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, K. 2007, January 14. Sublime Indian Sweets. New York Times: NJ9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Balch 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Matzke and Matzke 2000; Balch 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Matzke and Matzke 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Bergles et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleCanadian Journal of Forest Research
AbbreviationCan. J. For. Res.
ISSN (print)0045-5067
ISSN (online)1208-6037
Global and Planetary Change

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