How to format your references using the Frontiers in Microbial Physiology and Metabolism citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Microbial Physiology and Metabolism. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
de Lanerolle, P. (2005). Recruiters and academia. Top 10 tips for success in graduate school. Nature 433, 442.
A journal article with 2 authors
Prins, G., and Rayner, S. (2007). Time to ditch Kyoto. Nature 449, 973–975.
A journal article with 3 authors
Adams, E. J., Chien, Y.-H., and Garcia, K. C. (2005). Structure of a gammadelta T cell receptor in complex with the nonclassical MHC T22. Science 308, 227–231.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Prochnik, S. E., Umen, J., Nedelcu, A. M., Hallmann, A., Miller, S. M., Nishii, I., et al. (2010). Genomic analysis of organismal complexity in the multicellular green alga Volvox carteri. Science 329, 223–226.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Baher, H. (2012). Signal Processing and Integrated Circuits. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Garbey, M., Bass, B. L., Berceli, S., Collet, C., and Cerveri, P. eds. (2014). Computational Surgery and Dual Training: Computing, Robotics and Imaging. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Timmins, P. (2006). “Detergent Binding in Membrane Protein Crystals by Neutron Crystallography,” in Neutron Scattering in Biology: Techniques and Applications Biological and Medical Physics, Biomedical Engineering., eds. T. Gutberlet and J. Katsaras (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 73–83.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Microbial Physiology and Metabolism.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2016). Juno Returns Amazing First Image Of Jupiter And Its Moons From Orbit. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2008). Examples of Job Hopping by Commercial Drivers After Failing Drug Tests. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Schewe, E. M. (2016). Re-establishing Connections: Listening to Women Psychology Students Talk about Recovery.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hubbard, B., and Erdbrink, T. (2017). Siding With the Saudis. New York Times, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (de Lanerolle, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (de Lanerolle, 2005; Prins and Rayner, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Prins and Rayner, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Prochnik et al., 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Microbial Physiology and Metabolism
AbbreviationFront. Microbiol.
ISSN (online)1664-302X
Microbiology (medical)

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