How to format your references using the Frontiers in Microbial Physiology and Metabolism citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Microbial Physiology and Metabolism. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sargent, M. (2008). Obituary: Willis E. Lamb Jr (1913-2008). Nature 453, 867.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gitlin, A. D., and Nussenzweig, M. C. (2015). Immunology: Fifty years of B lymphocytes. Nature 517, 139–141.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sigman, D. M., Hain, M. P., and Haug, G. H. (2010). The polar ocean and glacial cycles in atmospheric CO(2) concentration. Nature 466, 47–55.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Johansson, L. I., Armiento, R., Avila, J., Xia, C., Lorcy, S., Abrikosov, I. A., et al. (2014). Multiple π-bands and Bernal stacking of multilayer graphene on C-face SiC, revealed by nano-Angle Resolved Photoemission. Sci. Rep. 4, 4157.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Scot, L. (2010). The Simplified Guide to Not-for-Profit Accounting, Formation, and Reporting. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Fontes, M., Günther, M., and Marheineke, N. eds. (2014). Progress in Industrial Mathematics at ECMI 2012. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Hentschel, C., Stober, S., Nürnberger, A., and Detyniecki, M. (2008). “Automatic Image Annotation Using a Visual Dictionary Based on Reliable Image Segmentation,” in Adaptive Multimedia Retrieval: Retrieval, User, and Semantics: 5th International Workshop, AMR 2007, Paris, France, July 5-6, 2007 Revised Selected Papers Lecture Notes in Computer Science., eds. N. Boujemaa, M. Detyniecki, and A. Nürnberger (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 45–56.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Microbial Physiology and Metabolism.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2016). Relax, The Expansion Of The Universe Is Still Accelerating. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2007). Hospital Quality Data: HHS Should Specify Steps and Time Frame for Using Information Technology to Collect and Submit Data. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pearson, R. S. (2008). Relationship Banking in a Competitive Environment With and Without Information Sharing: The Importance of Credit Bureaus in Microfinance.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lee, L. (2013). Art You Can Live With. New York Times, D3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hirose, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Robins, 2005; Tate, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gitlin and Nussenzweig, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Nomura et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Microbial Physiology and Metabolism
AbbreviationFront. Microbiol.
ISSN (online)1664-302X
Microbiology (medical)

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