How to format your references using the Frontiers in Microbial Physiology and Metabolism citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Microbial Physiology and Metabolism. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Maskin, E. (2008). Economics. Can neural data improve economics? Science 321, 1788–1789.
A journal article with 2 authors
Abbott, A., and Schiermeier, Q. (2000). Deep roots of Nazi science revealed. Nature 407, 823–824.
A journal article with 3 authors
Puliga, M., Caldarelli, G., and Battiston, S. (2014). Credit Default Swaps networks and systemic risk. Sci. Rep. 4, 6822.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Belluscio, L., Lodovichi, C., Feinstein, P., Mombaerts, P., and Katz, L. C. (2002). Odorant receptors instruct functional circuitry in the mouse olfactory bulb. Nature 419, 296–300.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Quéguiner, B. (2016). The Biogeochemical Cycle of Silicon in the Ocean. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Ardagna, C. A., Damiani, E., Maciaszek, L. A., Missikoff, M., and Parkin, M. eds. (2012). Business System Management and Engineering: From Open Issues to Applications. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Ziegler, H., and Jensen, N. R. (2015). “New Conditions of Professional Work or the Fall of Professions? On Managerialism and Professionalism,” in Facing Trajectories from School to Work: Towards a Capability-Friendly Youth Policy in Europe Technical and Vocational Education and Training: Issues, Concerns and Prospects., eds. H.-U. Otto, R. Atzmüller, T. Berthet, L. Bifulco, J.-M. Bonvin, E. Chiappero-Martinetti, et al. (Cham: Springer International Publishing), 53–70.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Microbial Physiology and Metabolism.

Blog post
Taub, B. (2016). Italy Calls In Its Army To Help Grow Medical Marijuana. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2013). Federal Vehicle Fleets: Adopting Leading Practices Could Improve Management. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gikiri, M. M. (2012). Effects of attitude, norms, and perceived behavior control on intentions to become a teen father.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Southall, A. (2016). 2 Charged With Murder After a Buried Body Is Found in New Jersey. New York Times, A25.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Maskin, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Abbott and Schiermeier, 2000; Maskin, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Abbott and Schiermeier, 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Belluscio et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Microbial Physiology and Metabolism
AbbreviationFront. Microbiol.
ISSN (online)1664-302X
Microbiology (medical)

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