How to format your references using the Frontiers in Microbial Physiology and Metabolism citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Microbial Physiology and Metabolism. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Minteer, B. (2014). Is it right to reverse extinction? Nature 509, 261.
A journal article with 2 authors
Griffith, L. G., and Naughton, G. (2002). Tissue engineering--current challenges and expanding opportunities. Science 295, 1009–1014.
A journal article with 3 authors
Erol, V., Ozaydin, F., and Altintas, A. A. (2014). Analysis of entanglement measures and LOCC maximized quantum Fisher information of general two qubit systems. Sci. Rep. 4, 5422.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Zhang, H., Zhang, X., Sun, X., and Ma, Y. (2013). Shape-controlled synthesis of nanocarbons through direct conversion of carbon dioxide. Sci. Rep. 3, 3534.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Alexander, M., and Walkenbach, J. (2012). 101 Ready-to-Use Excel® Macros. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Gardi, E., Glover, N., and Robson, A. eds. (2015). LHC Phenomenology. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Campbell, M., and Zegwaard, K. E. (2015). “Developing Critical Moral Agency Through Workplace Engagement,” in Practice-based Learning in Higher Education: Jostling Cultures Professional and Practice-based Learning., eds. M. Kennedy, S. Billett, S. Gherardi, and L. Grealish (Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands), 47–64.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Microbial Physiology and Metabolism.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2015). 6 Things You Didn’t Know About Tapirs (NSFW). IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1984). [Comments on Proposed MOU To Govern GAO Disclosure of FCC Documents]. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Thompson, T. (2010). Assessing the determinants of information technology adoption in Jamaica’s public sector using the technology acceptance model.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Yablonsky, L. (2011). Coast Garde. New York Times, M224.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Minteer, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Griffith and Naughton, 2002; Minteer, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Griffith and Naughton, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Zhang et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Microbial Physiology and Metabolism
AbbreviationFront. Microbiol.
ISSN (online)1664-302X
Microbiology (medical)

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