How to format your references using the Frontiers in Microbial Physiology and Metabolism citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Microbial Physiology and Metabolism. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Linden, J. (2006). Cell biology. Purinergic chemotaxis. Science 314, 1689–1690.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fehr, E., and Gächter, S. (2002). Altruistic punishment in humans. Nature 415, 137–140.
A journal article with 3 authors
Merz, A. J., So, M., and Sheetz, M. P. (2000). Pilus retraction powers bacterial twitching motility. Nature 407, 98–102.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Lim, Y.-W., Steinhoff, M., Girosi, F., Holtzman, D., Campbell, H., Boer, R., et al. (2006). Reducing the global burden of acute lower respiratory infections in children: the contribution of new diagnostics. Nature 444 Suppl 1, 9–18.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
André, É., and Soulat, R. (2013). The Inverse Method. Hoboken, NJ USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Yu, D., and Hung, M.-C. eds. (2007). Breast Cancer Chemosensitivity. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Beh, A. L., Fleet, G. H., Prakitchaiwattana, C., and Heard, G. M. (2006). “Evaluation of molecular methods for the analysis of yeasts in foods and beverages,” in Advances in Food Mycology Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology., eds. A. D. Hocking, J. I. Pitt, R. A. Samson, and U. Thrane (Boston, MA: Springer US), 69–106.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Microbial Physiology and Metabolism.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. (2016). Life On Earth Might Have Started Inside Comet Craters. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1994). Space Shuttle: Incomplete Data and Funding Approach Increase Cost Risk for Upgrade Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Brasseaux, S. (2015). The Mississippi River-Gulf Outlet and Land Changes in Louisiana Deltaic Plain, Saint Bernard Parish, Louisiana.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barry, E., and Kishkovsky, S. (2008). Russian President Sends Obama Warning on European Missile System. New York Times, A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Linden, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Fehr and Gächter, 2002; Linden, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Fehr and Gächter, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Lim et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Microbial Physiology and Metabolism
AbbreviationFront. Microbiol.
ISSN (online)1664-302X
Microbiology (medical)

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