How to format your references using the Frontiers in Language Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Language Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Young, L. (2015). Photonics: A stable narrow-band X-ray laser. Nature 524, 424–425.
A journal article with 2 authors
LaDeau, S. L., and Clark, J. S. (2001). Rising CO2 levels and the fecundity of forest trees. Science 292, 95–98.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lestas, I., Vinnicombe, G., and Paulsson, J. (2010). Fundamental limits on the suppression of molecular fluctuations. Nature 467, 174–178.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Kuwatani, T., Nagata, K., Okada, M., Watanabe, T., Ogawa, Y., Komai, T., et al. (2014). Machine-learning techniques for geochemical discrimination of 2011 Tohoku tsunami deposits. Sci. Rep. 4, 7077.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rider, M. J. (2015). Design and Analysis of Mechanisms. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Kountchev, R., and Iantovics, B. eds. (2013). Advances in Intelligent Analysis of Medical Data and Decision Support Systems. Heidelberg: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Field, W. E., and Tormoehlen, R. L. (2006). “Education and Training as Intervention Strategies,” in Agricultural Medicine: A Practical Guide, ed. J. E. Lessenger (New York, NY: Springer), 42–52.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Language Sciences.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2016). Nepal Nearly Doubled Their Tiger Population In Just Three Years. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1976). Procedures and Policies of the Energy Research and Development Administration. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Smith, C. A. (2014). Teacher and Student Perceptions of Bullying at Leclaire School.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. (2008). Bush Appeals to Justices on Detainees Case. New York Times, A17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Young, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (LaDeau and Clark, 2001; Young, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (LaDeau and Clark, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Kuwatani et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Language Sciences
AbbreviationFront. Psychol.
ISSN (online)1664-1078
ScopeGeneral Psychology

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