How to format your references using the Frontiers in Language Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Language Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ahlberg, P. E. (2004). Comment on “The early evolution of the tetrapod humerus.” Science 305, 1715; author reply 1715.
A journal article with 2 authors
Oeppen, J., and Vaupel, J. W. (2002). Demography. Broken limits to life expectancy. Science 296, 1029–1031.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chandrappa, G. T., Steunou, N., and Livage, J. (2002). Materials chemistry: macroporous crystalline vanadium oxide foam. Nature 416, 702.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Chang, Y.-C., Yang, C.-Y., Sun, R.-L., Cheng, Y.-F., Kao, W.-C., and Yang, P.-C. (2013). Rapid single cell detection of Staphylococcus aureus by aptamer-conjugated gold nanoparticles. Sci. Rep. 3, 1863.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cornier, J., Owen, A., Kwade, A., and Van de Voorde, M. (2017). Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology: Innovation and Production. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Minai, A. A., and Bar-Yam, Y. eds. (2006). Unifying Themes in Complex Systems: New Research Volume IIIB Proceedings from the Third International Conference on Complex Systems. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Wang, V., and Carayannis, E. G. (2012). “Results,” in Promoting Balanced Competitiveness Strategies of Firms in Developing Countries, ed. E. G. Carayannis (New York, NY: Springer), 73–89.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Language Sciences.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015). Celebrity Selfies Helped us to Uncover How Memories are Formed in the Brain. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1989). Issues Related to FAA’s Effectiveness. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
O’Byrne, S. M. (2008). Metabolic and pathological role of retinyl esters: The role of lecithin:retinol acyl transferase, (LRAT).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dargis, M., and Poniewozik, J. (2017). Not Exactly Your Simple Sequel. New York Times, C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ahlberg, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Oeppen and Vaupel, 2002; Ahlberg, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Oeppen and Vaupel, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Chang et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Language Sciences
AbbreviationFront. Psychol.
ISSN (online)1664-1078
ScopeGeneral Psychology

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