How to format your references using the Frontiers in Fractal Physiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Fractal Physiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cohen, J. (2014). Strategies against HIV/AIDS. Australia shows its neighbors how to stem an epidemic. Introduction. Science 345, 152–155.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yasunaga, M., and Matsumura, Y. (2014). Role of SLC6A6 in promoting the survival and multidrug resistance of colorectal cancer. Sci. Rep. 4, 4852.
A journal article with 3 authors
Oliveira, G. de A., Lieberman, J., and Barillas-Mury, C. (2012). Epithelial nitration by a peroxidase/NOX5 system mediates mosquito antiplasmodial immunity. Science 335, 856–859.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Abbondanzieri, E. A., Bokinsky, G., Rausch, J. W., Zhang, J. X., Le Grice, S. F. J., and Zhuang, X. (2008). Dynamic binding orientations direct activity of HIV reverse transcriptase. Nature 453, 184–189.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pagliaro, M. (2010). Nano-Age. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Harteis, C., Rausch, A., and Seifried, J. eds. (2014). Discourses on Professional Learning: On the Boundary Between Learning and Working. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Nikolay, B. (2014). “Modeling Development of Deep Horizons of Open Pits,” in Mine Planning and Equipment Selection: Proceedings of the 22nd MPES Conference, Dresden, Germany, 14th – 19th October 2013, eds. C. Drebenstedt and R. Singhal (Cham: Springer International Publishing), 43–51.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Fractal Physiology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015). The Massive Waste Happening In Mosquito-Borne Disease Research. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1993). Athletic Department Profiles. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Heyen, C. (2015). Two predictors of smoking behaviors in the LGBTQ population: Anxiety and internalized homophobia.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kaminer, A., and Southall, A. (2013). Baruch College Student Dies After Fraternity Ritual in Poconos. New York Times, A29.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cohen, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Cohen, 2014; Yasunaga and Matsumura, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Yasunaga and Matsumura, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Abbondanzieri et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Fractal Physiology
AbbreviationFront. Physiol.
ISSN (online)1664-042X
Physiology (medical)

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