How to format your references using the Frontiers in Fractal Physiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Fractal Physiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McDowell, N. (2003). Joint European plan will tackle Africa’s killer diseases. Nature 421, 5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wayland, B., and Fu, X. (2006). Chemistry. Building molecules with carbon monoxide reductive coupling. Science 311, 790–791.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dudley, A. T., Ros, M. A., and Tabin, C. J. (2002). A re-examination of proximodistal patterning during vertebrate limb development. Nature 418, 539–544.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Stoykovich, M. P., Müller, M., Kim, S. O., Solak, H. H., Edwards, E. W., de Pablo, J. J., et al. (2005). Directed assembly of block copolymer blends into nonregular device-oriented structures. Science 308, 1442–1446.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Eggert, H., and Kauschke, W. (2012). Structural Bearings. Berlin, Germany: Ernst & Sohn Verlag für Architektur und technische Wissenschaften GmbH & Co. KG.
An edited book
Fossen, T. I., and Nijmeijer, H. eds. (2012). Parametric Resonance in Dynamical Systems. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Diao, L., Wang, D., Peng, Z., and Guo, L. (2015). “Neural Dynamic Surface Control for Three-Phase PWM Voltage Source Rectifier,” in Advances in Neural Networks – ISNN 2015: 12th International Symposium on Neural Networks, ISNN 2015, Jeju, South Korea, October 15-18, 2015, Proceedings Lecture Notes in Computer Science., eds. X. Hu, Y. Xia, Y. Zhang, and D. Zhao (Cham: Springer International Publishing), 28–35.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Fractal Physiology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015). Physicists Demonstrate “Weeping Angel” Effect. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1999). Export Controls: International Space Station Technology Transfers. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Vespa, M. C. (2013). System Identification and Compensation Using a Surface-Bristle Deflection Model.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, B. (2016). A Potluck of Anxiety as a Family Gathers in an Election Season. New York Times, C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (McDowell, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (McDowell, 2003; Wayland and Fu, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wayland and Fu, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Stoykovich et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Fractal Physiology
AbbreviationFront. Physiol.
ISSN (online)1664-042X
Physiology (medical)

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