How to format your references using the Frontiers in Fractal Physiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Fractal Physiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Singmaster, D. (2010). Obituary: Martin Gardner (1914-2010). Nature 465, 884.
A journal article with 2 authors
Roxburgh, S. H., and Mokany, K. (2007). Comment on “From plant traits to plant communities: a statistical mechanistic approach to biodiversity.” Science 316, 1425; author reply 1425.
A journal article with 3 authors
Booth, L. N., Tuch, B. B., and Johnson, A. D. (2010). Intercalation of a new tier of transcription regulation into an ancient circuit. Nature 468, 959–963.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Choe, S. B., Acremann, Y., Scholl, A., Bauer, A., Doran, A., Stöhr, J., et al. (2004). Vortex core-driven magnetization dynamics. Science 304, 420–422.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Doyle, J. F. (2005). Modern Experimental Stress Analysis. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Lee, M., Pak, J. S., and Kim, J. eds. (2014). Electrical Design of Through Silicon Via. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Karra, S., Jelali, M., Karim, M. N., and Horch, A. (2010). “Detection of Oscillating Control Loops,” in Detection and Diagnosis of Stiction in Control Loops: State of the Art and Advanced Methods Advances in Industrial Control., eds. M. Jelali and B. Huang (London: Springer), 61–100.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Fractal Physiology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014). Study Reveals Discrimination Starts Before Grad School. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1990). Information Resources: Management Improvements Essential for Key Agriculture Automated Systems. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kratovac, S. (2012). Developmental alterations in inhibitory neurotransmission in the Fragile X Syndrome mouse basolateral amygdala.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines, G. G. (2016). Anniversary Present: 25-Cent Comic Books. New York Times, C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Singmaster, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Roxburgh and Mokany, 2007; Singmaster, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Roxburgh and Mokany, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Choe et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Fractal Physiology
AbbreviationFront. Physiol.
ISSN (online)1664-042X
Physiology (medical)

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