How to format your references using the Frontiers in Fractal Physiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Fractal Physiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McDevitt, J. (2006). The candidate. Nature 440, 580.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ives, A. R., and Whitlock, M. C. (2002). Ecology. Inbreeding and metapopulations. Science 295, 454–455.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gerber, L. R., Hyrenbach, K. D., and Zacharias, M. A. (2005). Ecology. Do the largest protected areas conserve whales or whalers? Science 307, 525–526.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Aliotta, F., Giaquinta, P. V., Ponterio, R. C., Prestipino, S., Saija, F., Salvato, G., et al. (2014). Supercooled water escaping from metastability. Sci. Rep. 4, 7230.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Breitmaier, E. (2005). Vom NMR-Spektrum zur Strukturformel organischer Verbindungen. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Moemeka, E. (2013). Real World Windows 8 App Development with JavaScript: Create Great Windows Store Apps. , ed. E. Moemeka Berkeley, CA: Apress.
A chapter in an edited book
Koch, H., Tataru, D., and Vişan, M. (2014). “Convolution of measures on hypersurfaces, bilinear estimates, and local smoothing,” in Dispersive Equations and Nonlinear Waves: Generalized Korteweg–de Vries, Nonlinear Schrödinger, Wave and Schrödinger Maps Oberwolfach Seminars., eds. D. Tataru and M. Vişan (Basel: Springer), 73–85.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Fractal Physiology.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2016). CryoSat Reveals Dramatic Ice Loss From Greenland. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1976). Survey of the DOL Activities With Regard to Assistance Furnished to Non-Reservation Indians. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rivera, C. (2017). The Role of Privacy, Brand Labeling, and Cost on Condom Procurement: Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to Assess a University Policy.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J. (2017). With Colon Free and Pitchers Hurt, Mets’ Future Could Lie in Their Past. New York Times, B10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (McDevitt, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Ives and Whitlock, 2002; McDevitt, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ives and Whitlock, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Aliotta et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Fractal Physiology
AbbreviationFront. Physiol.
ISSN (online)1664-042X
Physiology (medical)

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