How to format your references using the Frontiers in Fractal Physiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Fractal Physiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dalton, R. (2000). Older women scientists fight USGS over layoffs. US Geological Survey. Nature 404, 219.
A journal article with 2 authors
Weaver, B. A. A., and Cleveland, D. W. (2007). Comment on “A centrosome-independent role for gamma-TuRC proteins in the spindle assembly checkpoint.” Science 316, 982; author reply 982.
A journal article with 3 authors
Martini, I. B., Barthel, E. R., and Schwartz, B. J. (2001). Optical control of electrons during electron transfer. Science 293, 462–465.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Ménétrey, J., Bahloul, A., Wells, A. L., Yengo, C. M., Morris, C. A., Sweeney, H. L., et al. (2005). The structure of the myosin VI motor reveals the mechanism of directionality reversal. Nature 435, 779–785.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sobel, A. (2009). All for One. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Muga, G., Ruschhaupt, A., and Campo, A. del eds. (2009). Time in Quantum Mechanics - Vol. 2. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Berg, T., and Hempel, H. (2008). “Inverse Problems Have Inverse Complexity,” in Fifth Ifip International Conference On Theoretical Computer Science – Tcs 2008 IFIP International Federation for Information Processing., eds. G. Ausiello, J. Karhumäki, G. Mauri, and L. Ong (Boston, MA: Springer US), 73–86.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Fractal Physiology.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2016). Purps The Penguin Gets A New 3D-Printed Boot To Help With Her Injury. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2000). Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority: Information on Contracting at Washington Dulles International Airport and Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport Between 1992 and 1999. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hao, S. (2013). An Introduction to Discrete Minimal Surfaces via the Enneper Surface.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Burghardt, L. F. (2007). Neighbors Protest Flea Market’s Move to Belmont Park. New York Times, LI11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dalton, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Dalton, 2000; Weaver and Cleveland, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Weaver and Cleveland, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Ménétrey et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Fractal Physiology
AbbreviationFront. Physiol.
ISSN (online)1664-042X
Physiology (medical)

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