How to format your references using the Frontiers in Fractal Physiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Fractal Physiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Weiss, U. (2011). Intestinal networks in health and disease. Nature 474, 297.
A journal article with 2 authors
Vitetta, E. S., and Ghetie, V. F. (2006). Immunology. Considering therapeutic antibodies. Science 313, 308–309.
A journal article with 3 authors
Van der Burg, E., Cass, J., and Alais, D. (2014). Window of audio-visual simultaneity is unaffected by spatio-temporal visual clutter. Sci. Rep. 4, 5098.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Wei, W., Tao, Y., Lv, W., Su, F.-Y., Ke, L., Li, J., et al. (2014). Unusual high oxygen reduction performance in all-carbon electrocatalysts. Sci. Rep. 4, 6289.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cannon, D. L. (2016). CISA®. Indianapolis, Indiana: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Fukś, H., Lukosch, S., and Salgado, A. C. eds. (2005). Groupware: Design, Implementation, and Use: 11th International Workshop, CRIWG 2005, Porto de Galinhas, Brazil, September 25-29, 2005. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Huneman, P. (2015). “Selection,” in Handbook of Evolutionary Thinking in the Sciences, eds. T. Heams, P. Huneman, G. Lecointre, and M. Silberstein (Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands), 37–76.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Fractal Physiology.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. (2016). The Global Impact Of Air Conditioning: Big And Getting Bigger. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2001). Aviation Security: Vulnerabilities in, and Alternatives for, Preboard Screening Security Operations. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Deise, E. C. (2008). Frame problems, Fodor’s challenge, and practical reason.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, K. (2008). THE WAY WE LIVE: 11-23-08: Becoming Screen Literate. New York Times, MM48.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Weiss, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Vitetta and Ghetie, 2006; Weiss, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Vitetta and Ghetie, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Wei et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Fractal Physiology
AbbreviationFront. Physiol.
ISSN (online)1664-042X
Physiology (medical)

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