# How to format your references using the Geografisk Tidsskrift-Danish Journal of Geography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geografisk Tidsskrift-Danish Journal of Geography. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

## Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

## Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bottjer, D. J. (2012). Geochemistry. Life in the Early Triassic ocean. Science (New York, N.Y.), 338(6105), 336–337.
A journal article with 2 authors
Romanowicz, B., & Giardini, D. (2001). Geophysics. The future of permanent seismic networks. Science (New York, N.Y.), 293(5537), 2000–2001.
A journal article with 3 authors
van Doorn, G. S., Edelaar, P., & Weissing, F. J. (2009). On the origin of species by natural and sexual selection. Science (New York, N.Y.), 326(5960), 1704–1707.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Wang, X., Chen, H., Yin, H., Kim, S. S., Lin Tan, S., & Gosden, R. G. (2002). Fertility after intact ovary transplantation. Nature, 415(6870), 385.

## Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Perlmutter, D. D., & Rothstein, R. L. (2010). The Challenge of Climate Change. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Müller, W. E. (Ed.). (2005). St. John’s Wort and its Active Principles in Depression and Anxiety. Birkhäuser.
A chapter in an edited book
Chacón Rebollo, T., & Lewandowski, R. (2014). The $$k-\varepsilon$$ Model. In R. Lewandowski (Ed.), Mathematical and Numerical Foundations of Turbulence Models and Applications (pp. 83–114). Springer.

## Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geografisk Tidsskrift-Danish Journal of Geography.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, September 19). Asthmatic Sea Otter Learns To Use An Inhaler. IFLScience; IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/asthmatic-sea-otter-learns-use-inhaler/

## Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1989). Computer Systems: Types and Sources of Department of State Lookout Records (IMTEC-89-71FS). U.S. Government Printing Office.

## Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hebel, O. (2012). Parental involvement in the individual educational program for Israeli students with disabilities [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Phoenix.

## News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Ford Fessenden; Kate, & Reporting, L. S. C. (2007, April 8). Long Island Aid Comes at Westchester’s Expense. New York Times, 14WC5.

## In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bottjer, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Bottjer, 2012; Romanowicz & Giardini, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

• Two authors: (Romanowicz & Giardini, 2001)
• Three authors: (van Doorn et al., 2009)
• 6 or more authors: (Wang et al., 2002)