How to format your references using the Frontiers in Diabetes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Diabetes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ivins, E. R. (2009). Ocean science. Ice sheet stability and sea level. Science 324, 888–889.
A journal article with 2 authors
Otto, S. P., and Jarne, P. (2001). Evolution. Haploids--hapless or happening? Science 292, 2441–2443.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chen, L. M., Friedman, R. M., and Roe, A. W. (2003). Optical imaging of a tactile illusion in area 3b of the primary somatosensory cortex. Science 302, 881–885.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Mercado, L. M., Bellouin, N., Sitch, S., Boucher, O., Huntingford, C., Wild, M., et al. (2009). Impact of changes in diffuse radiation on the global land carbon sink. Nature 458, 1014–1017.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McGrath, A. E. (2011). Darwinism and the Divine. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Grizzard, J. D. (2008). Cardiovascular MRI in Practice: A Teaching File Approach. , eds. R. M. Judd and R. J. Kim London: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Serpa, N. S. C., Costa, I., Vendrametto, O., and de Oliveira Costa Neto, L. (2014). “Project and Work Organization in Solidarity Economy: A first Approach According to Production Engineering,” in Advances in Production Management Systems. Innovative and Knowledge-Based Production Management in a Global-Local World: IFIP WG 5.7 International Conference, APMS 2014, Ajaccio, France, September 20-24, 2014, Proceedings, Part II IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology., eds. B. Grabot, B. Vallespir, S. Gomes, A. Bouras, and D. Kiritsis (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 30–37.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Diabetes.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014). Orphan Pygmy Marmoset Loves Being Brushed By A Toothbrush. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1987). Highway Needs: An Evaluation of DOT’s Process for Assessing the Nation’s Highway Needs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Andrews, M. (2014). Health literacy competencies for health professionals: A Delphi study.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Kelly, T. (1996). High-Tech Fraternity. New York Times, B21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ivins, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Otto and Jarne, 2001; Ivins, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Otto and Jarne, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Mercado et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Diabetes
AbbreviationFront. Endocrinol. (Lausanne)
ISSN (online)1664-2392

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