How to format your references using the Frontiers in Diabetes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Diabetes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Irion, R. (2000). ASTROPHYSICS: Astronomers Spot Their First Carbon Bomb. Science 290, 1279.
A journal article with 2 authors
Vanorio, T., and Kanitpanyacharoen, W. (2015). ROCK PHYSICS. Rock physics of fibrous rocks akin to Roman concrete explains uplifts at Campi Flegrei Caldera. Science 349, 617–621.
A journal article with 3 authors
Andrews-Hanna, J. C., Zuber, M. T., and Banerdt, W. B. (2008). The Borealis basin and the origin of the martian crustal dichotomy. Nature 453, 1212–1215.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Tukiainen, T., Villani, A.-C., Yen, A., Rivas, M. A., Marshall, J. L., Satija, R., et al. (2018). Corrigendum: Landscape of X chromosome inactivation across human tissues. Nature 555, 274.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Glisic, S. (2016). Advanced Wireless Networks. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Di Stefano, R., and Ramón Solans, F. J. eds. (2016). Marian Devotions, Political Mobilization, and Nationalism in Europe and America. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Boissier, O., Hübner, J. F., and Sichman, J. S. (2007). “Organization Oriented Programming: From Closed to Open Organizations,” in Engineering Societies in the Agents World VII: 7th International Workshop, ESAW 2006 Dublin, Ireland, September 6-8, 2006 Revised Selected and Invited Papers Lecture Notes in Computer Science., eds. G. M. P. O’Hare, A. Ricci, M. J. O’Grady, and O. Dikenelli (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 86–105.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Diabetes.

Blog post
Taub, B. (2016). Hallucinogenic Amazonian Medicine Stimulates Generation Of New Brain Cells. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1970). Administration of Federal Support of Shore Facilities and Vessels for Research Activities at Oceanographic Institutions. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pelser, C. R. (2010). Interpretation of Aaron Copland’s Duo for Flute and Piano.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barron, J. (2016). A Piece of Film History, Hidden in a Home Movie. New York Times, A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Irion, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Irion, 2000; Vanorio and Kanitpanyacharoen, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Vanorio and Kanitpanyacharoen, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Tukiainen et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Diabetes
AbbreviationFront. Endocrinol. (Lausanne)
ISSN (online)1664-2392

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