How to format your references using the Frontiers in Diabetes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Diabetes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Squire, L. R. (2007). Neuroscience. Rapid consolidation. Science 316, 57–58.
A journal article with 2 authors
Klein, D. J., and Ferré-D’Amaré, A. R. (2006). Structural basis of glmS ribozyme activation by glucosamine-6-phosphate. Science 313, 1752–1756.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hanczyc, M. M., Fujikawa, S. M., and Szostak, J. W. (2003). Experimental models of primitive cellular compartments: encapsulation, growth, and division. Science 302, 618–622.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Bartels, L., Wang, F., Möller, D., Knoesel, E., and Heinz, T. F. (2004). Real-space observation of molecular motion induced by femtosecond laser pulses. Science 305, 648–651.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chen, Z. N., and Chia, M. Y. W. (2006). Broadband Planar Antennas. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Krempels, K.-H., and Stocker, A. eds. (2014). Web Information Systems and Technologies: 9th International Conference, WEBIST 2013, Aachen, Germany, May 8-10, 2013, Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Malone, T., and Jackman, C. (2016). “Spectatorship as Embodied Practice,” in Adapting War Horse: Cognition, the Spectator, and a Sense of Play, ed. C. Jackman (London: Palgrave Macmillan UK), 39–49.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Diabetes.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2015). Shell Fossils Suggest Our Prehistoric Ancestors Brought Tools to Europe Via the Near East. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1980). Improving Social Security Administration Procedures for Acquiring ADP and Telecommunications Resources. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Fengler, K. (2017). Everyday Aesthetics and the Environmental Significance of Everyday Aesthetics: A High School Art Unit of Instruction Promoting Positive Attitudinal Changes towards the Environment.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, L. (2007). Roslyn Chooses New Schools Superintendent. New York Times, LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Squire, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Klein and Ferré-D’Amaré, 2006; Squire, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Klein and Ferré-D’Amaré, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Bartels et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Diabetes
AbbreviationFront. Endocrinol. (Lausanne)
ISSN (online)1664-2392

Other styles