How to format your references using the Frontiers in Diabetes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Diabetes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bertrand, C. A. (2001). Tech.Sight. Color by number: imaging large data. Science 293, 1335–1336.
A journal article with 2 authors
Seelig, J. D., and Jayaraman, V. (2015). Neural dynamics for landmark orientation and angular path integration. Nature 521, 186–191.
A journal article with 3 authors
Beeli, G., Esslen, M., and Jäncke, L. (2005). Synaesthesia: when coloured sounds taste sweet. Nature 434, 38.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Seo, J.-S., Jeon, J.-H., Hwang, Y. H., Park, H., Ryu, M., Park, S.-H. K., et al. (2013). Solution-processed flexible fluorine-doped indium zinc oxide thin-film transistors fabricated on plastic film at low temperature. Sci. Rep. 3, 2085.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Valiev, R. Z., Zhilyaev, A. P., and Langdon, T. G. (2013). Bulk Nanostructured Materials. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Berezin, V. ed. (2010). Structure and Function of the Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule NCAM. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Murty, M. N., and Panda, M. (2016). “Current Status of Environmental and Economic Accounting: Review of Some Countries Experiences and Way Forward for India,” in Nature, Economy and Society: Understanding the Linkages, eds. N. Ghosh, P. Mukhopadhyay, A. Shah, and M. Panda (New Delhi: Springer India), 51–85.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Diabetes.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015). Watch Tigers Frolic In A Pool After Being Rescued From Cages. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1999). Export Controls: International Space Station Technology Transfers. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Garcia, M. (2015). College preparedness program for high school students in South Los Angeles, California: A grant proposal.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Card, J. (2017). A River With Too Many Fish. New York Times, TR10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bertrand, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Bertrand, 2001; Seelig and Jayaraman, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Seelig and Jayaraman, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Seo et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Diabetes
AbbreviationFront. Endocrinol. (Lausanne)
ISSN (online)1664-2392

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