How to format your references using the Frontiers in Diabetes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Diabetes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Downward, J. (2001). The ins and outs of signalling. Nature 411, 759–762.
A journal article with 2 authors
Aguzzi, A., and Haass, C. (2003). Games played by rogue proteins in prion disorders and Alzheimer’s disease. Science 302, 814–818.
A journal article with 3 authors
Xu, X., Zhou, Z., and Prum, R. O. (2001). Branched integumental structures in Sinornithosaurus and the origin of feathers. Nature 410, 200–204.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Lorenz, T., Hofmann, M., Grüninger, M., Freimuth, A., Uhrig, G. S., Dumm, M., et al. (2002). Evidence for spin-charge separation in quasi-one-dimensional organic conductors. Nature 418, 614–617.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Forsberg, K., and Mansdorf, S. Z. (2005). Quick Selection Guide to Chemical Protective Clothing. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Seckbach, J., Oren, A., and Stan-Lotter, H. eds. (2013). Polyextremophiles: Life Under Multiple Forms of Stress. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Esmenjaud, D., and Dirlewanger, E. (2007). “Plum,” in Fruits and Nuts Genome Mapping and Molecular Breeding in Plants., ed. C. Kole (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 119–135.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Diabetes.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2016). Losing Control: The Dangers Of Killer Robots. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1964). Comments on NASA’s Expenditure of Appropriated Funds for Parking Spaces. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Whitehead, C. F. (2010). Teacher perceptions of the effects of parentification on social interactions in the school setting.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, B. (2017). 6 Days. New York Times, C9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Downward, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Downward, 2001; Aguzzi and Haass, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Aguzzi and Haass, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Lorenz et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Diabetes
AbbreviationFront. Endocrinol. (Lausanne)
ISSN (online)1664-2392

Other styles