How to format your references using the Frontiers in Diabetes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Diabetes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mardis, E. R. (2011). A decade’s perspective on DNA sequencing technology. Nature 470, 198–203.
A journal article with 2 authors
Niu, F., and Wen, L. (2001). Hemispherical variations in seismic velocity at the top of the Earth’s inner core. Nature 410, 1081–1084.
A journal article with 3 authors
Letinic, K., Zoncu, R., and Rakic, P. (2002). Origin of GABAergic neurons in the human neocortex. Nature 417, 645–649.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Raby, C. R., Alexis, D. M., Dickinson, A., and Clayton, N. S. (2007). Planning for the future by western scrub-jays. Nature 445, 919–921.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety (2010). Layer of Protection Analysis. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Hruschka, E. R., Watada, J., and Carmo Nicoletti, M. do eds. (2011). Integrated Computing Technology: First International Conference, INTECH 2011, Sao Carlos, Brazil, May 31 – June 2, 2011. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Wilcock, N., and Scholz, C. (2016). “Overcoming Underdevelopment,” in Hartmut Elsenhans and a Critique of Capitalism: Conversations on Theory and Policy Implications, ed. C. Scholz (London: Palgrave Macmillan UK), 40–56.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Diabetes.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2017). The 25 Highest-Paying Jobs In America In 2017. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1980). The Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gornto, J. S. (2009). The impact of student leadership in classroom management on student achievement.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
La Gorce, T. (2012). Fire Up the Pit: My Brisket Can Burn Yours. New York Times, NJ8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Mardis, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Mardis, 2011; Niu and Wen, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Niu and Wen, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Raby et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Diabetes
AbbreviationFront. Endocrinol. (Lausanne)
ISSN (online)1664-2392

Other styles