How to format your references using the Frontiers in Aquatic Physiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Aquatic Physiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cantor, G. (2000). Fighting the wrong battle. Nature 403, 831.
A journal article with 2 authors
Patterson, G. H., and Lippincott-Schwartz, J. (2002). A photoactivatable GFP for selective photolabeling of proteins and cells. Science 297, 1873–1877.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hembacher, S., Giessibl, F. J., and Mannhart, J. (2004). Force microscopy with light-atom probes. Science 305, 380–383.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Kim, H. J., Graham, D. W., DiSpirito, A. A., Alterman, M. A., Galeva, N., Larive, C. K., et al. (2004). Methanobactin, a copper-acquisition compound from methane-oxidizing bacteria. Science 305, 1612–1615.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hochstadt, H. (1988). Integral Equations. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Johansson, P.-O. (2012). The Economics of Evaluating Water Projects: Hydroelectricity Versus Other Uses. , ed. B. Kriström Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Lenaz, G. (2012). “Mitochondria and Reactive Oxygen Species. Which Role in Physiology and Pathology?,” in Advances in Mitochondrial Medicine Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology., eds. R. Scatena, P. Bottoni, and B. Giardina (Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands), 93–136.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Aquatic Physiology.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2014). Songbirds Share Our Musical Scales. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1994). School-Age Children: Poverty and Diversity Challenge Schools Nationwide. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Emerson, J. D. (2001). The Jambalaya That is My Brain.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M. W. (2010). Fresh Details on the Fed Rescue of A.I.G.’s Insurance Units. New York Times, A4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cantor, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Cantor, 2000; Patterson and Lippincott-Schwartz, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Patterson and Lippincott-Schwartz, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Kim et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Aquatic Physiology
AbbreviationFront. Physiol.
ISSN (online)1664-042X
Physiology (medical)

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