How to format your references using the Frontiers in Aquatic Physiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Aquatic Physiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Soker, N. (2007). Astronomy. Nebulae around evolved stars. Science 315, 1086–1087.
A journal article with 2 authors
Levitt, S. D., and List, J. A. (2008). Economics. Homo economicus evolves. Science 319, 909–910.
A journal article with 3 authors
Plerou, V., Gopikrishnan, P., and Stanley, H. E. (2003). Econophysics: Two-phase behaviour of financial markets. Nature 421, 130.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Baek, S.-Y., Kaneda, F., Ozawa, M., and Edamatsu, K. (2013). Experimental violation and reformulation of the Heisenberg’s error-disturbance uncertainty relation. Sci. Rep. 3, 2221.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sedlacek, H. H., Sapienza, A. M., and Eid, V. (2008). Ways to Successful Strategies in Drug Research and Development. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH.
An edited book
Wang, W., Li, Y., Duan, Z., Yan, L., Li, H., and Yang, X. eds. (2007). Integration and Innovation Orient to E-Society Volume 1: Seventh IFIP International Conference on e-Business, e-Services, and e-Society (I3E2007), October 10–12, Wuhan, China. Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Villena, J. F., Schilders, W. H. A., and Miguel Silveira, L. (2009). “Parametric Structure-Preserving Model Order Reduction,” in VLSI-SoC: Advanced Topics on Systems on a Chip: A Selection of Extended Versions of the Best Papers of the Fourteenth International Conference on Very Large Scale Integration of System on Chip (VLSI-SoC2007), October 15-17, 2007, Atlanta, USA IFIP – The International Federation for Information Processing., eds. P. Hasler, V. Mooney, and R. Reis (Boston, MA: Springer US), 1–20.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Aquatic Physiology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015). Early Humans Had Gender Equal Societies. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2005). Office of Personnel Management: Retirement Systems Modernization Program Faces Numerous Challenges. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Caldretti, M. (2017). Vocal Pedagogy and the Adolescent Female Singing Voice.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, J. (2004). HOME FRONT/Erin St.; Trading Boardroom for a Camper’s Bunk. New York Times, 101.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Soker, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Soker, 2007; Levitt and List, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Levitt and List, 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Baek et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Aquatic Physiology
AbbreviationFront. Physiol.
ISSN (online)1664-042X
Physiology (medical)

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