How to format your references using the Frontiers in Aquatic Physiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Aquatic Physiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zaratiegui, M. (2015). Molecular biology: RNA interference hangs by a thread. Nature 520, 162–164.
A journal article with 2 authors
Poage, M. A., and Chamberlain, C. P. (2006). Geochemistry. Rising mountain ranges. Science 311, 478–479.
A journal article with 3 authors
Park, S. T., Kim, S. K., and Kim, M. S. (2002). Observation of conformation-specific pathways in the photodissociation of 1-iodopropane ions. Nature 415, 306–308.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Warita, K., Warita, T., Beckwitt, C. H., Schurdak, M. E., Vazquez, A., Wells, A., et al. (2014). Statin-induced mevalonate pathway inhibition attenuates the growth of mesenchymal-like cancer cells that lack functional E-cadherin mediated cell cohesion. Sci. Rep. 4, 7593.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Behme, S. (2015). Manufacturing of Pharmaceutical Proteins. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Shumaker, R., and Lackey, S. eds. (2015). Virtual, Augmented and Mixed Reality: 7th International Conference, VAMR 2015, Held as Part of HCI International 2015, Los Angeles, CA, USA, August 2-7, 2015, Proceedings. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Kreyssig, P., and Dittrich, P. (2011). “Emergent Control,” in Organic Computing — A Paradigm Shift for Complex Systems, eds. C. Müller-Schloer, H. Schmeck, and T. Ungerer (Basel: Springer), 67–78.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Aquatic Physiology.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2016). Explanation For How BCG Vaccine Protects Against Other Diseases. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1994). Commercial Practices: Opportunities Exist to Enhance DOD’s Sales of Surplus Aircraft Parts. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hatcher, R. (2012). Guide to improvisation for Mozart’s serenade in Bb Major, K. 361, the “Gran Partita.”

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S. (2007). The Bolshoi Tries Partnering With a Friend From America. New York Times, AR10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Zaratiegui, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Poage and Chamberlain, 2006; Zaratiegui, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Poage and Chamberlain, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Warita et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Aquatic Physiology
AbbreviationFront. Physiol.
ISSN (online)1664-042X
Physiology (medical)

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