How to format your references using the Frontiers in Aquatic Physiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Aquatic Physiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Power, P. P. (2010). Main-group elements as transition metals. Nature 463, 171–177.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fujiwara, M., and Caswell, H. (2001). Demography of the endangered North Atlantic right whale. Nature 414, 537–541.
A journal article with 3 authors
Brohawn, S. G., del Mármol, J., and MacKinnon, R. (2012). Crystal structure of the human K2P TRAAK, a lipid- and mechano-sensitive K+ ion channel. Science 335, 436–441.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Jiang, H., Xu, L., Wang, Z., Keene, J., and Gu, Z. (2014). Coordinating expression of RNA binding proteins with their mRNA targets. Sci. Rep. 4, 7175.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
King, M. (2011). Process Control. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Rizvi, N. B. (2014). Minerals and Lipids Profiles in Cardiovascular Disorders in South Asia: Cu, Mg, Se, Zn and Lipid Serum Profiles for the Example of Patients in Pakistan. , ed. S. A. Nagra Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Kowada, L. A. B., de A. Hausen, R., and de Figueiredo, C. M. H. (2010). “Bounds on the Transposition Distance for Lonely Permutations,” in Advances in Bioinformatics and Computational Biology: 5th Brazilian Symposium on Bioinformatics, BSB 2010, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, August 31-September 3, 2010. Proceedings Lecture Notes in Computer Science., eds. C. E. Ferreira, S. Miyano, and P. F. Stadler (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 35–46.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Aquatic Physiology.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2014). Hawking Radiation Recreated In A Laboratory. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1995). Amtrak: Deteriorated Financial and Operating Conditions. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rholdon, C. M. (2012). Analyzing Leadership Practices of Enrollment Management at Fletcher Technical Community College.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S. (2005). A Choreographer Vanishes In Murky Russian Mystery. New York Times, E1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Power, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Fujiwara and Caswell, 2001; Power, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Fujiwara and Caswell, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Jiang et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Aquatic Physiology
AbbreviationFront. Physiol.
ISSN (online)1664-042X
Physiology (medical)

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