How to format your references using the Frontiers in Aquatic Physiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Aquatic Physiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Jungmann, K. P. (2015). Particle physics: Matter and antimatter scrutinized. Nature 524, 168–169.
A journal article with 2 authors
Perner, J., and Ruffman, T. (2005). Psychology. Infants’ insight into the mind: how deep? Science 308, 214–216.
A journal article with 3 authors
Frebel, A., Kirby, E. N., and Simon, J. D. (2010). Linking dwarf galaxies to halo building blocks with the most metal-poor star in Sculptor. Nature 464, 72–75.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Pan, D., Kobayashi, A., Jiang, P., Ferrari de Andrade, L., Tay, R. E., Luoma, A. M., et al. (2018). A major chromatin regulator determines resistance of tumor cells to T cell-mediated killing. Science 359, 770–775.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dormieux, L., and Kondo, D. (2016). Micromechanics of Fracture and Damage. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Hassanien, A. E., Tolba, M. F., and Taher Azar, A. eds. (2014). Advanced Machine Learning Technologies and Applications: Second International Conference, AMLTA 2014, Cairo, Egypt, November 28-30, 2014. Proceedings. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Sebbah, S., Boukhtouta, A., Berger, J., and Ghanmi, A. (2013). “Military Logistics Planning in Humanitarian Relief Operations,” in Humanitarian and Relief Logistics: Research Issues, Case Studies and Future Trends Operations Research/Computer Science Interfaces Series., eds. V. Zeimpekis, S. Ichoua, and I. Minis (New York, NY: Springer), 77–110.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Aquatic Physiology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015). Be Prepared For The Shortest Total Lunar Eclipse Of The century. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2000). Joint Strike Fighter Acquisition: Development Schedule Should Be Changed to Reduce Risks. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bernstine, J. T. (2015). Experiences of Students Transferring from Community and Technical Colleges to a Private Nonprofit University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Fink, S., and Risen, J. (2016). Suit Aims to Hold Contractors Accountable for C.I.A. Torture. New York Times, A10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (White, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Begelman, 2003; Myers, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Perner and Ruffman, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Sajic et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Aquatic Physiology
AbbreviationFront. Physiol.
ISSN (online)1664-042X
Physiology (medical)

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