How to format your references using the Frontiers in Aquatic Physiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Aquatic Physiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Baker, M. (2011). Animal models: inside the minds of mice and men. Nature 475, 123–128.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sawa, A., and Snyder, S. H. (2002). Schizophrenia: diverse approaches to a complex disease. Science 296, 692–695.
A journal article with 3 authors
Meek, S. A., Conrad, H., and Meijer, G. (2009). Trapping molecules on a chip. Science 324, 1699–1702.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Leutgeb, J. K., Leutgeb, S., Moser, M.-B., and Moser, E. I. (2007). Pattern separation in the dentate gyrus and CA3 of the hippocampus. Science 315, 961–966.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ibe, O. C. (2011). Fundamentals of Stochastic Networks. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Bizon, J. L., and Woods, A. eds. (2009). Animal Models of Human Cognitive Aging. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press.
A chapter in an edited book
Kemp, R., Palmer, N., Kielmann, T., and Bal, H. (2012). “Energy Efficient Information Monitoring Applications on Smartphones through Communication Offloading,” in Mobile Computing, Applications, and Services: Third International Conference, MobiCASE 2011, Los Angeles, CA, USA, October 24-27, 2011. Revised Selected Papers Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering., eds. J. Y. Zhang, J. Wilkiewicz, and A. Nahapetian (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 60–79.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Aquatic Physiology.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2014). Mars Rover Breaks Longest Off-World Driving Record. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2010). Aviation Security: TSA Is Increasing Procurement and Deployment of the Advanced Imaging Technology, but Challenges to This Effort and Other Areas of Aviation Security Remain. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mirzalou, R. (2017). Design and simulation of an 8-PSK super regenerative receiver with new phase detection technique.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. (2011). In Tight Battle, Jets Look Like the Geniuses. New York Times, D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Baker, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Baker, 2011; Sawa and Snyder, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sawa and Snyder, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Leutgeb et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Aquatic Physiology
AbbreviationFront. Physiol.
ISSN (online)1664-042X
Physiology (medical)

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