How to format your references using the Frontiers in Aquatic Physiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Aquatic Physiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Winklhofer, M. (2012). Physiology. An avian magnetometer. Science 336, 991–992.
A journal article with 2 authors
Day, J., and Beamish, J. (2007). Low-temperature shear modulus changes in solid 4He and connection to supersolidity. Nature 450, 853–856.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cho, G., Wu, Y., and Ackerman, J. L. (2003). Detection of hydroxyl ions in bone mineral by solid-state NMR spectroscopy. Science 300, 1123–1127.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Fecko, C. J., Eaves, J. D., Loparo, J. J., Tokmakoff, A., and Geissler, P. L. (2003). Ultrafast hydrogen-bond dynamics in the infrared spectroscopy of water. Science 301, 1698–1702.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
The American Ceramic Society (2009). Progress in Nanotechnology. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Bonnet, R.-M. (2008). Surviving 1,000 Centuries: Can we do it?. , ed. L. Woltjer New York, NY: Praxis.
A chapter in an edited book
Kuiper, W., Boersma, K., and Van Den Akker, J. (2005). “Towards a More Curricular Focus in International Comparative Studies on Mathematics and Science Education,” in Research and the Quality of Science Education, eds. K. Boersma, M. Goedhart, O. de Jong, and H. Eijkelhof (Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands), 41–54.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Aquatic Physiology.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2016). An Alligator Has Been Found With A Human Body In Its Mouth In Florida. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1991). Within-School Discrimination: Inadequate Title VI Enforcement by the Office for Civil Rights. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Coar, H. (2010). Using mandalas to support grieving female adolescents: A case study.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Robbins, J., and Sulzberger, A. G. (2009). Onboard Device Could Offer Clue to Montana Crash. New York Times, A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Winklhofer, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Day and Beamish, 2007; Winklhofer, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Day and Beamish, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Fecko et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Aquatic Physiology
AbbreviationFront. Physiol.
ISSN (online)1664-042X
Physiology (medical)

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