How to format your references using the Frontiers in Antimicrobials, Resistance and Chemotherapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Antimicrobials, Resistance and Chemotherapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Moazed, D. (2009). Small RNAs in transcriptional gene silencing and genome defence. Nature 457, 413–420.
A journal article with 2 authors
Henzler-Wildman, K., and Kern, D. (2007). Dynamic personalities of proteins. Nature 450, 964–972.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pergams, O. R. W., Barnes, W. M., and Nyberg, D. (2003). Mammalian microevolution: Rapid change in mouse mitochondrial DNA. Nature 423, 397.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Olguin, G., Yacou, C., Smart, S., and da Costa, J. C. D. (2013). Tailoring the oxidation state of cobalt through halide functionality in sol-gel silica. Sci. Rep. 3, 2449.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ravindran, K. (2014). The Mathematics of Financial Models. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Cook, D. L. (2006). CryptoGraphics: Exploiting Graphics Cards for Security. , ed. A. D. Keromytis Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Domżał, J., Wójcik, R., and Jajszczyk, A. (2009). “The Impact of Congestion Control Mechanisms on Network Performance after Failure in Flow-Aware Networks,” in Traffic Management and Traffic Engineering for the Future Internet: First Euro-NF Workshop, FITraMEn 2008, Porto, Portugal, December 11-12, Revised Selected Papers Lecture Notes in Computer Science., eds. R. Valadas and P. Salvador (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 53–67.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Antimicrobials, Resistance and Chemotherapy.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015). Recently Identified “DNA Clock” Helps Predict Mortality. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2012). James Webb Space Telescope: Actions Needed to Improve Cost Estimate and Oversight of Test and Integration. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lenz, R. M. (2017). Iron, Arsenic, and Elevated Salinity in the Lower Mississippi River Alluvial Aquifer of Louisiana.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
George, N. (2013). Red and Black. New York Times, BR12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Moazed, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Henzler-Wildman and Kern, 2007; Moazed, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Henzler-Wildman and Kern, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Olguin et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Antimicrobials, Resistance and Chemotherapy
AbbreviationFront. Microbiol.
ISSN (online)1664-302X
Microbiology (medical)

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