How to format your references using the Frontiers in Antimicrobials, Resistance and Chemotherapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Antimicrobials, Resistance and Chemotherapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Willyard, C. (2011). Imaging: Seeing is believing. Nature 480, S52-3.
A journal article with 2 authors
McMichael, A. J., and Rowland-Jones, S. L. (2001). Cellular immune responses to HIV. Nature 410, 980–987.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lee, T.-H., Bhunia, S., and Mehregany, M. (2010). Electromechanical computing at 500 degrees C with silicon carbide. Science 329, 1316–1318.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Yamamoto, K., Sakata, Y., Nohara, Y., Takahashi, Y., and Tatsumi, T. (2003). Organic-inorganic hybrid zeolites containing organic frameworks. Science 300, 470–472.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Esmailzadeh, R. (2006). Broadband Wireless Communications Business. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Battin-Leclerc, F., Simmie, J. M., and Blurock, E. eds. (2013). Cleaner Combustion: Developing Detailed Chemical Kinetic Models. London: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
King, A. (2008). “Structuring Peer Interaction to Promote Higher-Order Thinking and Complex Learning in Cooperating Groups,” in The Teacher’s Role in Implementing Cooperative Learning in the Classroom, eds. R. M. Gillies, A. F. Ashman, and J. Terwel (Boston, MA: Springer US), 73–91.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Antimicrobials, Resistance and Chemotherapy.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2016). Girls Are Put Off Science Because STEM Toys Are Branded As Boy’s Toys, Research Says. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2003). Aviation Safety: Undeclared Air Shipments of Dangerous Goods and DOT’s Enforcement Approach. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Spencer, K. H. (2008). Exploring the impact of problem -focused case writing pedagogy on novice teachers’ beliefs and practices concerning effective instructional intervention for young children and families.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wilson, M. (2017). Diary Hints at Slaves’ Remains on a Lot in Brooklyn. New York Times, A15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Willyard, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (McMichael and Rowland-Jones, 2001; Willyard, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (McMichael and Rowland-Jones, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Yamamoto et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Antimicrobials, Resistance and Chemotherapy
AbbreviationFront. Microbiol.
ISSN (online)1664-302X
Microbiology (medical)

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