How to format your references using the Frontiers for Young Minds citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers for Young Minds. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik P. Bricks and mortar. Switzerland switches on supercomputers. Nature (2004) 429:326.
A journal article with 2 authors
Vaquero-Sedas MI, Vega-Palas MA. Differential association of Arabidopsis telomeres and centromeres with histone H3 variants. Sci Rep (2013) 3:1202.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mukandavire Z, Smith DL, Morris JG Jr. Cholera in Haiti: reproductive numbers and vaccination coverage estimates. Sci Rep (2013) 3:997.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Zhang Y, Stokes N, Jia B, Fan S, Gu M. Towards ultra-thin plasmonic silicon wafer solar cells with minimized efficiency loss. Sci Rep (2014) 4:4939.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Early WF II. Contractor and Client Relations to Assure Process Safety. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. (2010).
An edited book
Brown DW. Mining the Earth’s Heat: Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Energy. , eds. D. V. Duchane, G. Heiken, V. T. Hriscu Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer (2012).
A chapter in an edited book
Fujii T, Ito H, Miyoshi S. “A Theoretical Analysis of Semi-supervised Learning,” in Neural Information Processing: 23rd International Conference, ICONIP 2016, Kyoto, Japan, October 16–21, 2016, Proceedings, Part II Lecture Notes in Computer Science., eds. A. Hirose, S. Ozawa, K. Doya, K. Ikeda, M. Lee, D. Liu (Cham: Springer International Publishing), 28–36.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers for Young Minds.

Blog post
Andrew E. This Microchip That Could Reduce Animal Testing has Designers Excited. IFLScience (2015) Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018]


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Aviation Safety: Serious Problems Continue to Trouble the Air Traffic Control Work Force. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office (1989).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Aparicio EM. Examining Latina/o STEM degree aspirations. (2015)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K. Homeless Take Control of Their Lives on the Web. New York Times (2000)145.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers for Young Minds
AbbreviationFront. Young Minds
ISSN (online)2296-6846

Other styles