How to format your references using the Frontiers for Young Minds citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers for Young Minds. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Loveland W. Chemistry. Superheavy carbonyls. Science (2014) 345:1451–1452.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zimmerman JB, Anastas PT. Chemistry. Toward substitution with no regrets. Science (2015) 347:1198–1199.
A journal article with 3 authors
Di Toro G, Nielsen S, Pennacchioni G. Earthquake rupture dynamics frozen in exhumed ancient faults. Nature (2005) 436:1009–1012.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Wang L, He D, Feng S, Yu C, Hu L, Qiu J, Chen D. Yb/Er co-doped phosphate all-solid single-mode photonic crystal fiber. Sci Rep (2014) 4:6139.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rowe HE. Electromagnetic Propagation in Multi-Mode Random Media. New York, USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. (2001).
An edited book
Alepis E. Object-Oriented User Interfaces for Personalized Mobile Learning. , ed. M. Virvou Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer (2014).
A chapter in an edited book
Hughes G, Maher M. “Redistribution in the Irish Pension System: Upside Down?,” in The Irish Welfare State in the Twenty-First Century: Challenges and Change, eds. M. P. Murphy, F. Dukelow (London: Palgrave Macmillan UK), 93–118.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers for Young Minds.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. Incredible Video Shows What It Would Be Like To Land On Pluto. IFLScience (2017) Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018]


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Principles and Practices of Auditing in the ADP Systems Environment. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office (1969).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Blackwell PK. Timbre Fantasy: An Analysis on Coloristic Choices in John Corigliano’s Etude Fantasy. (2017)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J. By Providing Power Off the Bench, Conforto Preserves Place on Mets’ Roster. New York Times (2017)B10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers for Young Minds
AbbreviationFront. Young Minds
ISSN (online)2296-6846

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