How to format your references using the Fractal and Fractional citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Fractal and Fractional. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Jackson, A. Intense Equatorial Flux Spots on the Surface of the Earth’s Core. Nature 2003, 424, 760–763.
A journal article with 2 authors
Orphanides, G.; Reinberg, D. RNA Polymerase II Elongation through Chromatin. Nature 2000, 407, 471–475.
A journal article with 3 authors
Oh, J.S.; Susor, A.; Conti, M. Protein Tyrosine Kinase Wee1B Is Essential for Metaphase II Exit in Mouse Oocytes. Science 2011, 332, 462–465.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Hwang, Y.; Suk, S.; Shih, Y.-R.V.; Seo, T.; Du, B.; Xie, Y.; Li, Z.; Varghese, S. WNT3A Promotes Myogenesis of Human Embryonic Stem Cells and Enhances in Vivo Engraftment. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 5916.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dujmović, D.; Androić, B.; Lukačević, I. Composite Structures According to Eurocode 4; Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH: D-69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2014; ISBN 9783433604908.
An edited book
Micro and Nano Mechanical Testing of Materials and Devices; Yang, F., Li, J.C.M., Eds.; Springer US: Boston, MA, 2008; ISBN 9780387787008.
A chapter in an edited book
McCaffrey, M. Siblings of Children and Adults with Intellectual and Developmental Disability. In Health Care for People with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities across the Lifespan; Rubin, I.L., Merrick, J., Greydanus, D.E., Patel, D.R., Eds.; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; pp. 59–67 ISBN 9783319180953.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Fractal and Fractional.

Blog post
Fang, J. Study Reveals How Traveling To Mars Could Damage Astronaut’s Brains Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Getting the New Communities Program Started: Progress and Problems; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1974;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Spisak, G.M. Particulation. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodgman, J. Bonus Advice From Judge John Hodgman. New York Times 2017, MM26.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleFractal and Fractional
AbbreviationFractal Fract.
ISSN (online)2504-3110

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