How to format your references using the Fractal and Fractional citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Fractal and Fractional. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rehkämper, M. Tracing the Earth’s Evolution. Nature 2000, 407, 848–849.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rhee, H.S.; Pugh, B.F. Genome-Wide Structure and Organization of Eukaryotic Pre-Initiation Complexes. Nature 2012, 483, 295–301.
A journal article with 3 authors
Aubret, F.; Shine, R.; Bonnet, X. Evolutionary Biology: Adaptive Developmental Plasticity in Snakes. Nature 2004, 431, 261–262.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Fadok, V.A.; Bratton, D.L.; Rose, D.M.; Pearson, A.; Ezekewitz, R.A.; Henson, P.M. A Receptor for Phosphatidylserine-Specific Clearance of Apoptotic Cells. Nature 2000, 405, 85–90.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cannataro, M.; Guzzi, P.H. Data Management of Protein Interaction Networks; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2011; ISBN 9781118103746.
An edited book
Ecosystem Services, Biodiversity and Environmental Change in a Tropical Mountain Ecosystem of South Ecuador; Bendix, J., Beck, E., Bräuning, A., Makeschin, F., Mosandl, R., Scheu, S., Wilcke, W., Eds.; Ecological Studies, Analysis and Synthesis; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013; Vol. 221; ISBN 9783642381362.
A chapter in an edited book
Abdel-Aal, H.A.; Mansori, M.E. Reptilian Skin as a Biomimetic Analogue for the Design of Deterministic Tribosurfaces. In Biomimetics -- Materials, Structures and Processes: Examples, Ideas and Case Studies; Gruber, P., Bruckner, D., Hellmich, C., Schmiedmayer, H.-B., Stachelberger, H., Gebeshuber, I.C., Eds.; Biological and Medical Physics, Biomedical Engineering; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011; pp. 51–79 ISBN 9783642119330.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Fractal and Fractional.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Is Iron Rain The Reason Why Earth And The Moon Are So Different? (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Observations on Software Centers; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1977;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Shaker, G. Off the Track: The Full-Time Nontenure -Track Faculty Experience in English. Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University: Bloomington, IN, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J. Lugo’s Tear to Cost Him Two Weeks, Minimum. New York Times 2017, B9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleFractal and Fractional
AbbreviationFractal Fract.
ISSN (online)2504-3110

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