How to format your references using the Fractal and Fractional citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Fractal and Fractional. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Witze, A. Meteorology: California study targets rivers in the sky. Nature 2015, 517, 424–425.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zhu, H.; Bunn, H.F. Signal transduction. How do cells sense oxygen? Science 2001, 292, 449–451.
A journal article with 3 authors
Imaizumi, T.; Kay, S.A.; Schroeder, J.I. Circadian rhythms. Daily watch on metabolism. Science 2007, 318, 1730–1731.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Fryer, J.D.; Yu, P.; Kang, H.; Mandel-Brehm, C.; Carter, A.N.; Crespo-Barreto, J.; Gao, Y.; Flora, A.; Shaw, C.; Orr, H.T.; et al. Exercise and genetic rescue of SCA1 via the transcriptional repressor Capicua. Science 2011, 334, 690–693.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Speight, J.G. Rules of Thumb for Petroleum Engineers; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2017; ISBN 9781119403647.
An edited book
Modeling in Systems Biology: The Petri Net Approach; Koch, I., Reisig, W., Schreiber, F., Eds.; Computational Biology; Springer: London, 2011; Vol. 16; ISBN 9781849964739.
A chapter in an edited book
Buthelezi, T. IsiZulu Language and the Ilanga Newspaper as Catalysts for Participatory Democracy in South Africa. In Indigenous Language Media, Language Politics and Democracy in Africa; Salawu, A., Chibita, M.B., Eds.; Palgrave Macmillan UK: London, 2016; pp. 59–86 ISBN 9781349563401.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Fractal and Fractional.

Blog post
Andrew, D. 25 Images Of Earth That Put The Presidential Election Into Humbling Focus Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Selection and Use of Contractor for Development of a Management Information System for the Atomic Energy Commission; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1973;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Whitman, S. Operational risk and financial institution leaders’ decision making: A quantitative descriptive correlation study. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix: Phoenix, AZ, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M.W. As Payouts Rise, New Tactics By the U.S. Pension Insurer. New York Times 2010, B5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleFractal and Fractional
AbbreviationFractal Fract.
ISSN (online)2504-3110

Other styles