How to format your references using the Fractal and Fractional citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Fractal and Fractional. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stachel, J. 1905 and all that. Nature 2005, 433, 215–217.
A journal article with 2 authors
Matzke, M.A.; Matzke, A.J. Cloning problems don’t surprise plant biologists. Science 2000, 288, 2318b.
A journal article with 3 authors
Aylward, R.B.; Sutter, R.W.; Heymann, D.L. Policy. OPV cessation--the final step to a “polio-free” world. Science 2005, 310, 625–626.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
VanderVen, B.C.; Harder, J.D.; Crick, D.C.; Belisle, J.T. Export-mediated assembly of mycobacterial glycoproteins parallels eukaryotic pathways. Science 2005, 309, 941–943.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Héno, R.; Chandelier, L. 3D Modeling of Buildings; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2014; ISBN 9781118648889.
An edited book
Kaushik, B.K. Carbon Nanotube Based VLSI Interconnects: Analysis and Design; Majumder, M.K., Ed.; SpringerBriefs in Applied Sciences and Technology; Springer India: New Delhi, 2015; ISBN 9788132220466.
A chapter in an edited book
Rainov, N.G.; Whittle, I.R.; Doh-ura, K. Treatment Options in Patients with Prion Disease - the Role of Long Term Cerebroventricular Infusion of Pentosan Polysulphate. In Prions: Food and Drug Safety; Kitamoto, T., Ed.; Springer: Tokyo, 2005; pp. 41–66 ISBN 9784431255390.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Fractal and Fractional.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Cat Parasite Modified Into An Effective Cancer Vaccine Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office OPM Retirement Modernization: Progress Has Been Hindered by Longstanding Information Technology Management Weaknesses; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2012;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bravo, J. Project Share: Implementing an aftercare program for recovering adolescents: A grant proposal. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. Back to Brooklyn for a U.S. Eagle. New York Times 2011, SP10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleFractal and Fractional
AbbreviationFractal Fract.
ISSN (online)2504-3110

Other styles