How to format your references using the Fractal and Fractional citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Fractal and Fractional. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Long, M.D. GEOPHYSICS. How Mountains Get Made. Science 2015, 349, 687–688.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mossel, E.; Vigoda, E. Phylogenetic MCMC Algorithms Are Misleading on Mixtures of Trees. Science 2005, 309, 2207–2209.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cello, J.; Paul, A.V.; Wimmer, E. Chemical Synthesis of Poliovirus CDNA: Generation of Infectious Virus in the Absence of Natural Template. Science 2002, 297, 1016–1018.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Yin, H.-S.; Wen, X.; Paterson, R.G.; Lamb, R.A.; Jardetzky, T.S. Structure of the Parainfluenza Virus 5 F Protein in Its Metastable, Prefusion Conformation. Nature 2006, 439, 38–44.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rigo, M. Formal Languages, Automata and Numeration Systems 2; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2014; ISBN 9781119042853.
An edited book
Specialization and Complementation of Humoral Immune Responses to Infection; Manser, T., Ed.; Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2008; Vol. 319; ISBN 9783540738992.
A chapter in an edited book
Symonds, J. Stooping to Pick Up Stones: A Reflection on Urban Archaeology. In Interpreting the Early Modern World: Transatlantic Perspectives; Beaudry, M.C., Symonds, J., Eds.; Contributions To Global Historical Archaeology; Springer US: Boston, MA, 2011; pp. 63–84 ISBN 9780387707587.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Fractal and Fractional.

Blog post
Davis, J. Brutal Warfare May Help Explain Differences In Chimpanzee And Bonobo Societies Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office The Stafford Student Loan Program; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1990;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Krepstekies, C. News Media Representations of Women in the U.S. Military Post September 11, 2001. Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida: Tampa, FL, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Detrick, B. Et Al. New York Times 2017, D6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleFractal and Fractional
AbbreviationFractal Fract.
ISSN (online)2504-3110

Other styles