How to format your references using the Fractal and Fractional citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Fractal and Fractional. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wassarman, P.M. Reproductive Biology: Sperm Protein Finds Its Mate. Nature 2014, 508, 466–467.
A journal article with 2 authors
Singh, R.; Cresswell, P. Defective Cross-Presentation of Viral Antigens in GILT-Free Mice. Science 2010, 328, 1394–1398.
A journal article with 3 authors
Egholm, D.L.; Knudsen, M.F.; Sandiford, M. Lifespan of Mountain Ranges Scaled by Feedbacks between Landsliding and Erosion by Rivers. Nature 2013, 498, 475–478.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Du, X.; Skachko, I.; Duerr, F.; Luican, A.; Andrei, E.Y. Fractional Quantum Hall Effect and Insulating Phase of Dirac Electrons in Graphene. Nature 2009, 462, 192–195.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Vegh, A. Web Development with the Mac®; Wiley Publishing, Inc.: Indianapolis, IN, USA, 2010; ISBN 9781118255759.
An edited book
Patton, W. Career Development and Systems Theory: Connecting Theory and Practice; McMahon, M., Ed.; Career Development Series, Connecting Theory and Practice; SensePublishers: Rotterdam, 2014; Vol. 2; ISBN 9789462096356.
A chapter in an edited book
de Blasio, G.; Moreno-Díaz, R.; Moreno-Díaz, R. Analytical Representation of Intrinsic Directionality in Retinal Cells. In Computer Aided Systems Theory - EUROCAST 2009: 12th International Conference, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain, February 15-20, 2009, Revised Selected Papers; Moreno-Díaz, R., Pichler, F., Quesada-Arencibia, A., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009; pp. 33–40 ISBN 9783642047718.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Fractal and Fractional.

Blog post
Andrew, E. What Is The Biggest Star In The Universe? Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Maritime Law Exemption: Exemption Provides Limited Competitive Advantage, but Barriers to Further Entry under U.S. Flag Remain; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2004;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mendoza-Williams, J. Road to Success: The Experiences of Academically Successful Graduation-Bound African American Males. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barron, J. A Tree Older Than Columbus Finally Succumbs. New York Times 2016, A15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleFractal and Fractional
AbbreviationFractal Fract.
ISSN (online)2504-3110

Other styles