How to format your references using the Fossil Record citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Fossil Record. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Huch, M.: Regenerative biology: The versatile and plastic liver, Nature, 517, 155–156, 2015.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zeh, J. A. and Zeh, D. W.: Outbred embryos rescue inbred half-siblings in mixed-paternity broods of live-bearing females, Nature, 439, 201–203, 2006.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cubitt, T. S., Perez-Garcia, D., and Wolf, M. M.: Undecidability of the spectral gap, Nature, 528, 207–211, 2015.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Bashor, C. J., Helman, N. C., Yan, S., and Lim, W. A.: Using engineered scaffold interactions to reshape MAP kinase pathway signaling dynamics, Science, 319, 1539–1543, 2008.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gywat, O., Krenner, H. J., and Berezovsky, J.: Spins in Optically Active Quantum Dots, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany, 2009.
An edited book
Hilder, S. and Bettinson, V. (Eds.): Domestic Violence: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Protection, Prevention and Intervention, Palgrave Macmillan UK, London, XX, 332 p pp., 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Guidotti, R. and Berlingerio, M.: Where Is My Next Friend? Recommending Enjoyable Profiles in Location Based Services, in: Complex Networks VII: Proceedings of the 7th Workshop on Complex Networks CompleNet 2016, edited by: Cherifi, H., Gonçalves, B., Menezes, R., and Sinatra, R., Springer International Publishing, Cham, 65–78, 2016.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Fossil Record.

Blog post
99.999% Certainty Humans Are Driving Global Warming: New Study:, last access: 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Spectrum Management: FCC’s Licensing Approach in the 11, 18, and 23 Gigahertz Bands Currently Supports Spectrum Availability and Efficiency, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2012.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mayberry, D. S.: Total Relaxation Center, LLC, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines, G. G.: R. L. Stine to Write Comic Books for Marvel, New York Times, 9th December, C3, 2016.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Huch, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Huch, 2015; Zeh and Zeh, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Zeh and Zeh, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Bashor et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleFossil Record
ISSN (print)2193-0066
ISSN (online)2193-0074

Other styles