How to format your references using the Fossil Record citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Fossil Record. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Scully, T.: Sleep, Nature, 497, S1-3, 2013.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hayes, R. and Weiss, H.: Epidemiology. Understanding HIV epidemic trends in Africa, Science, 311, 620–621, 2006.
A journal article with 3 authors
Siveter, D. J., Williams, M., and Waloszek, D.: A phosphatocopid crustacean with appendages from the Lower Cambrian, Science, 293, 479–481, 2001.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Titov, V., Rabinovich, A. B., Mofjeld, H. O., Thomson, R. E., and González, F. I.: The global reach of the 26 December 2004 Sumatra tsunami, Science, 309, 2045–2048, 2005.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Boddy, R. and Smith, G.: Effective Experimentation, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2010.
An edited book
Stranieri, A.: Knowledge Discovery from Legal Databases, edited by: Zeleznikow, J., Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, XII, 298 p pp., 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
Bonnoit, A. C. and Wittmann, R.: Consequences for Circuit Design and Case Studies, in: Process Variations and Probabilistic Integrated Circuit Design, edited by: Dietrich, M. and Haase, J., Springer, New York, NY, 181–213, 2012.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Fossil Record.

Blog post
99.85% Of Americans Will Know A Victim Of Gun Violence At Some Point In Their Lives:, last access: 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Interscholastic Athletics: School Districts Provide Some Assistance to Uninsured Student Athletes, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2000.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Reig, M. A.: Cross-Dialectal Variability in Propositional Anaphora: A Quantitative and Pragmatic Study of Null Objects in Mexican and Peninsular Spanish, Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Yablonsky, L.: Space Invader, New York Times, 4th October, M234, 2009.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Scully, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Scully, 2013; Hayes and Weiss, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hayes and Weiss, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Titov et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleFossil Record
ISSN (print)2193-0066
ISSN (online)2193-0074

Other styles