How to format your references using the Arab Journal of Gastroenterology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Arab Journal of Gastroenterology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Morton O. PARTICLE PHYSICS: The Final Tally Leaves LEP a Probable Loser. Science 2000;290:1274a.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rambold AS, Lippincott-Schwartz J. Cell biology. SevERing mitochondria. Science 2011;334:186–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lee YK, Lee H, Park JY. Tandem-structured, hot electron based photovoltaic cell with double Schottky barriers. Sci Rep 2014;4:4580.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
El-Halawany AM, El Dine RS, El Sayed NS, Hattori M. Protective effect of Aframomum melegueta phenolics against CCl₄-induced rat hepatocytes damage; role of apoptosis and pro-inflammatory cytokines inhibition. Sci Rep 2014;4:5880.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Minei I, Lucek J. MPLS-Enabled Applications. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2006.
An edited book
Léon A, editor. Hydrogen Technology: Mobile and Portable Applications. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Leeson GW. Out of the Shadows: Are Grandfathers Defining Their Own Roles in the Modern Family in Denmark? In: Buchanan A, Rotkirch A, editors. Grandfathers: Global Perspectives, London: Palgrave Macmillan UK; 2016, p. 69–88.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Arab Journal of Gastroenterology.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. The Mystery Of Knut The Polar Bear’s Death May Have Been Solved. IFLScience 2015. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. FAA Air Traffic Controller Staffing and Related Issues. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1987.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wahid R. Quality of life of cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Antilla S. Jeweler’s Policies Masked Abuses, Suit Says. New York Times 2017:B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleArab Journal of Gastroenterology
AbbreviationArab J. Gastroenterol.
ISSN (print)1687-1979

Other styles