How to format your references using the Arab Journal of Gastroenterology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Arab Journal of Gastroenterology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Choi JR. A novel method for analyzing complicated quantum behaviors of light waves in oscillating turbulent plasma. Sci Rep 2014;4:6880.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gerde E, Marder M. Friction and fracture. Nature 2001;413:285–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cossairt BM, Diawara M-C, Cummins CC. Facile synthesis of AsP3. Science 2009;323:602.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Rocheleau T, Ndukum T, Macklin C, Hertzberg JB, Clerk AA, Schwab KC. Preparation and detection of a mechanical resonator near the ground state of motion. Nature 2010;463:72–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Provost JJ, Colabroy KL, Kelly BS, Wallert MA. The Science of Cooking. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2016.
An edited book
Pikkarainen M, Codenie W, Boucart N, Heredia Alvaro JA, editors. The Art of Software Innovation: Eight Practice Areas to Inspire your Business. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Graf F, te Kamp L, Auer M, Acharya MS, Wu W. Soil Aggregate Stability in Eco-engineering: Comparison of Field and Laboratory Data with an Outlook on a New Modelling Approach. In: Wu W, editor. Recent Advances in Modeling Landslides and Debris Flows, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015, p. 29–47.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Arab Journal of Gastroenterology.

Blog post
Andrew E. Even Educated Fleas Do It … But Is Animal Sex Spicier Than We Thought? IFLScience 2015. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Research and Development--and the Congress. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1968.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tolley CB. The role of trust and care in the implementation of a social constructivist curriculum in physical education. Doctoral dissertation. University of Maryland, College Park, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly M. G.O.P.’s Young Confrontation Corps. New York Times 1992:A17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleArab Journal of Gastroenterology
AbbreviationArab J. Gastroenterol.
ISSN (print)1687-1979

Other styles