How to format your references using the Forensic Science International citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Forensic Science International. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
A. Liljas, Biochemistry. Leaps in translational elongation, Science. 326 (2009) 677–678.
A journal article with 2 authors
F.U. Hartl, M. Hayer-Hartl, Molecular chaperones in the cytosol: from nascent chain to folded protein, Science. 295 (2002) 1852–1858.
A journal article with 3 authors
M.E.D. Pohl, K.O. Pope, C. von Nagy, Olmec origins of Mesoamerican writing, Science. 298 (2002) 1984–1987.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
D.Y. Zhang, A.J. Turberfield, B. Yurke, E. Winfree, Engineering entropy-driven reactions and networks catalyzed by DNA, Science. 318 (2007) 1121–1125.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
M. Bell, Incremental Software Architecture, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ, 2016.
An edited book
G.A. Lewis, I. Poernomo, C. Hofmeister, eds., Component-Based Software Engineering: 12th International Symposium, CBSE 2009 East Stroudsburg, PA, USA, June 24-26, 2009 Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
K. Singh, A. Jain, D. Singh, Satsang: A Culture Specific Effective Practice for Well-Being, in: H. Águeda Marujo, L.M. Neto (Eds.), Positive Nations and Communities: Collective, Qualitative and Cultural-Sensitive Processes in Positive Psychology, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2014: pp. 79–100.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Forensic Science International.

Blog post
E. Andrew, New Type Of Exoplanet Discovered, IFLScience. (2014). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Improvements Can Be Made in the Fiscal Management of CETA, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1982.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
F.I. Mbwiri, Remedial Math Instruction Intervention: Efficacy of Constructivist Practices on Alternative Students with Disabilities Mathematics Achievement, Doctoral dissertation, Northcentral University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Kelly, THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: Political Memo; Those Chicken Georges And What They Mean, New York Times. (1992) A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleForensic Science International
AbbreviationForensic Sci. Int.
ISSN (print)0379-0738
ScopePathology and Forensic Medicine

Other styles