How to format your references using the Forensic Science International citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Forensic Science International. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
H. McCabe, Post-cold war needs “new forms of scientific linkage,” Nature. 404 (2000) 8.
A journal article with 2 authors
A. Meguro, Y. Sato, Salicylic acid antagonizes abscisic acid inhibition of shoot growth and cell cycle progression in rice, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 4555.
A journal article with 3 authors
T.P. Topper, L.E. Holmer, J.-B. Caron, Brachiopods hitching a ride: an early case of commensalism in the middle Cambrian Burgess Shale, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 6704.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
J. Mendil, P. Nieves, O. Chubykalo-Fesenko, J. Walowski, T. Santos, S. Pisana, M. Münzenberg, Resolving the role of femtosecond heated electrons in ultrafast spin dynamics, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 3980.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
F. Callard, N. Sartorius, J. Arboleda-Flórez, P. Bartlett, H. Helmchen, H. Stuart, J. Taborda, G. Thornicroft, Mental Illness, Discrimination and the Law, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2012.
An edited book
G. Bebis, R. Boyle, B. Parvin, D. Koracin, P. Remagnino, F. Porikli, J. Peters, J. Klosowski, L. Arns, Y.K. Chun, T.-M. Rhyne, L. Monroe, eds., Advances in Visual Computing: 4th International Symposium, ISVC 2008, Las Vegas, NV, USA, December 1-3, 2008. Proceedings, Part I, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
S. Ghanbari, J.C. Woods, S.M. Lucas, Multi-dimensional BPTs for Content Retrieval, in: M. Grgic, K. Delac, M. Ghanbari (Eds.), Recent Advances in Multimedia Signal Processing and Communications, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009: pp. 73–90.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Forensic Science International.

Blog post
S. Luntz, How the Jesus Lizard Evolved, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, National Airspace System: FAA Has Made Progress but Continues to Face Challenges in Acquiring Major Air Traffic Control Systems, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2005.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
A. Soltani, Parenting and disciplinary practices of Iranian mothers: A quantitative study, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
D. Kelly, Some Bad Role Models, New York Times. (1994) 718.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleForensic Science International
AbbreviationForensic Sci. Int.
ISSN (print)0379-0738
ScopePathology and Forensic Medicine

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