How to format your references using the Financial Innovation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Financial Innovation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hanson B (2008) Mercury, up-close again. Introduction. Science 321:58
A journal article with 2 authors
Tobisu M, Chatani N (2014) Chemistry. Remote control by steric effects. Science 343:850–851
A journal article with 3 authors
Padian K, de Ricqlès AJ, Horner JR (2001) Dinosaurian growth rates and bird origins. Nature 412:405–408
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Yang H, Ma W, Gong D, et al (2014) A longitudinal study on children’s music training experience and academic development. Sci Rep 4:5854

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Levene M (2010) An Introduction to Search Engines and Web Navigation. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Langer M, Luger A, Woracek H (eds) (2006) Operator Theory and Indefinite Inner Product Spaces: Presented on the occasion of the retirement of Heinz Langer in the Colloquium on Operator Theory, Vienna, March 2004. Birkhäuser, Basel
A chapter in an edited book
Hudson WM, Pagliassotti MJ (2015) Oxidative Stress and the Unfolded Protein Response in the Liver. In: Albano E, Parola M (eds) Studies on Hepatic Disorders. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 113–122

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Financial Innovation.

Blog post
Davis J (2016) New Rare Neurodegenerative Brain Disease Discovered And Described. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1998) FCC: Reconsideration of the Rules and Policies for the 220-222 MHz Radio Service. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kern MW (2012) Regional phylogenetic analysis of the myology of primates and correlates in the human skeleton. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Mallozzi VM (2017) For a Bride’s Dying Father, a Wedding Built in 24 Hours. New York Times ST10

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hanson 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Hanson 2008; Tobisu and Chatani 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Tobisu and Chatani 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Yang et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleFinancial Innovation
ISSN (online)2199-4730

Other styles