How to format your references using the Financial Innovation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Financial Innovation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Groves JT (2006) Chemistry. Unveiling the membrane domains. Science 313:1901–1902
A journal article with 2 authors
Thompson JN, Cunningham BM (2002) Geographic structure and dynamics of coevolutionary selection. Nature 417:735–738
A journal article with 3 authors
Gavazzi G, Bisio A, Pozzo T (2013) Time perception of visual motion is tuned by the motor representation of human actions. Sci Rep 3:1168
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Perdomo D, Baron B, Rojo-Domínguez A, et al (2013) The α-helical regions of KERP1 are important in Entamoeba histolytica adherence to human cells. Sci Rep 3:1171

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Venkateshan SP (2015) Mechanical Measurements. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Greiner W (2009) Quantum Electrodynamics, Fourth Edition. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Coppedè F (2013) Advances in the Genetics of Human Tremor. In: Grimaldi G, Manto M (eds) Mechanisms and Emerging Therapies in Tremor Disorders. Springer, New York, NY, pp 53–78

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Financial Innovation.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) Climate Change Threatens Range of Bald Eagles and Half of American Bird Species. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2002) Intercity Passenger Rail: Potential Financial Issues in the Event That Amtrak Undergoes Liquidation. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zellner KM (2008) An examination of grade distribution patterns and grade inflation at a baccalaureate nursing program. Doctoral dissertation, Capella University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh MW, de la MERCED MJ (2010) A.I.G. Chairman Resigns, Citing Clash With Chief. New York Times B1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Groves 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Thompson and Cunningham 2002; Groves 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Thompson and Cunningham 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Perdomo et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleFinancial Innovation
ISSN (online)2199-4730

Other styles