How to format your references using the Financial Innovation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Financial Innovation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Marchant J (2015) Consider all the evidence on alternative therapies. Nature 526:295
A journal article with 2 authors
Field J, Fullagar R (2001) Archaeology and Australian megafauna. Science 294:7
A journal article with 3 authors
Euston DR, Tatsuno M, McNaughton BL (2007) Fast-forward playback of recent memory sequences in prefrontal cortex during sleep. Science 318:1147–1150
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Milotti E, Vyshemirsky V, Sega M, et al (2013) Metabolic scaling in solid tumours. Sci Rep 3:1938

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ziska LH, Dukes JS (2010) Weed Biology and Climate Change. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK
An edited book
Werf J van der, Graser H-U, Frankham R, Gondro C (eds) (2009) Adaptation and Fitness in Animal Populations: Evolutionary and Breeding Perspectives on Genetic Resource Management. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Zäpfel G, Braune R, Bögl M (2010) Metaheuristics in General. In: Braune R, Bögl M (eds) Metaheuristic Search Concepts: A Tutorial with Applications to Production and Logistics. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 67–73

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Financial Innovation.

Blog post
Hale T (2016) Elon Musk Thinks There’s A “One In Billions” Chance We Don’t Live In A Computer Simulation. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2012) School Bullying: Legal Protections for Vulnerable Youth Need to Be More Fully Assessed. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rosie SA (2012) Examining stakeholder perceptions of educational success in the Malagasy public education system. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky S (1999) For Everyone, Non-Russians, Too, There’s a Personal Pushkin. New York Times B9

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Marchant 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Field and Fullagar 2001; Marchant 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Field and Fullagar 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Milotti et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleFinancial Innovation
ISSN (online)2199-4730

Other styles