How to format your references using the Financial Innovation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Financial Innovation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik P (2005) Come together. Nature 434:252–253
A journal article with 2 authors
Trumbore SE, Czimczik CI (2008) Geology. An uncertain future for soil carbon. Science 321:1455–1456
A journal article with 3 authors
Hwang H-W, Wentzel EA, Mendell JT (2007) A hexanucleotide element directs microRNA nuclear import. Science 315:97–100
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Ruano MA, Lopez-Bonet E, Buxó M, et al (2014) An improved axillary staging system using the OSNA assay does not modify the therapeutic management of breast cancer patients. Sci Rep 4:5743

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bonald T, Feuillet M (2011) Network Performance Analysis. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
El Fallah Seghrouchni A, Dix J, Dastani M, Bordini RH (eds) (2009) Multi-Agent Programming: Languages, Tools and Applications. Springer US, Boston, MA
A chapter in an edited book
Ater JL, Weinberg JS, Maor MH, Petropoulos D (2005) Brain Tumors: Chemotherapy and Investigational Therapy. In: Chan KW, Raney RB (eds) Pediatric Oncology. Springer US, Boston, MA, pp 50–69

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Financial Innovation.

Blog post
Hale T (2016) 900 Million Android Devices Could Be Vulnerable To Hackers Due To A Bug. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2015) Space Acquisitions: GAO Assessment of DOD Responsive Launch Report. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Restrepo E (2009) Eventalizing blackness in Colombia. Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K (2001) Slippers, Pudding and a Martini Glass For Auden, in This Age of Anxiety. New York Times 148

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Smaglik 2005; Trumbore and Czimczik 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Trumbore and Czimczik 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Ruano et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleFinancial Innovation
ISSN (online)2199-4730

Other styles