How to format your references using the Finance and Stochastics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Finance and Stochastics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Grant, P.M.: Obituary: Chauncey Starr (1912-2007). Nature. 447, 789 (2007)
A journal article with 2 authors
Li, X., Yang, Y.: A novel perspective on seed yield of broad bean (Vicia faba L.): differences resulting from pod characteristics. Sci. Rep. 4, 6859 (2014)
A journal article with 3 authors
Bierhaus, E.B., Chapman, C.R., Merline, W.J.: Secondary craters on Europa and implications for cratered surfaces. Nature. 437, 1125–1127 (2005)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Bamber, J.L., Riva, R.E.M., Vermeersen, B.L.A., LeBrocq, A.M.: Reassessment of the potential sea-level rise from a collapse of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. Science. 324, 901–903 (2009)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Grous, A.: Applied Metrology for Manufacturing Engineering. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ (2011)
An edited book
Pohlmann, N., Reimer, H., Schneider, W. eds: ISSE 2009 Securing Electronic Business Processes: Highlights of the Information Security Solutions Europe 2009 Conference. Vieweg+Teubner, Wiesbaden (2010)
A chapter in an edited book
Nachtigall, W., Wisser, A.: STYLING AND DESIGN. In: Wisser, A. (ed.) Bionics by Examples: 250 Scenarios from Classical to Modern Times. pp. 87–95. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2015)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Finance and Stochastics.

Blog post
Davis, J.: Mothers Predominately Cradling Infants On Their Left May Have A Deep Evolutionary Origin,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: International Aviation: Measures by European Community Could Limit U.S. Airlines’ Ability to Compete Abroad. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1993)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zacher, B.: The roles of electrode contacts in organic photovoltaics, (2013)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, B.: Film Series, (2017)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleFinance and Stochastics
AbbreviationFinance Stoch.
ISSN (print)0949-2984
ISSN (online)1432-1122
ScopeStatistics, Probability and Uncertainty
Statistics and Probability

Other styles