How to format your references using the Finance and Stochastics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Finance and Stochastics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sternberg, P.W.: Developmental biology. A pattern of precision. Science. 303, 637–638 (2004)
A journal article with 2 authors
Sanderson, W.C., Scherbov, S.: Demography. Remeasuring aging. Science. 329, 1287–1288 (2010)
A journal article with 3 authors
Munsky, B., Neuert, G., van Oudenaarden, A.: Using gene expression noise to understand gene regulation. Science. 336, 183–187 (2012)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Zhuang, H., Zhang, L., Fuchs, R., Staedler, T., Jiang, X.: When epitaxy meets plasma: a path to ordered nanosheets arrays. Sci. Rep. 3, 2427 (2013)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schaik, C.P.V.: The Primate Origins of Human Nature. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ (2015)
An edited book
Geroulakos, G., Urk, H. van, Hobson, R.W. eds: Vascular Surgery: Cases, Questions and Commentaries. Springer, London (2006)
A chapter in an edited book
De Masellis, R., Su, J.: Runtime Enforcement of First-Order LTL Properties on Data-Aware Business Processes. In: Basu, S., Pautasso, C., Zhang, L., and Fu, X. (eds.) Service-Oriented Computing: 11th International Conference, ICSOC 2013, Berlin, Germany, December 2-5, 2013, Proceedings. pp. 54–68. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2013)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Finance and Stochastics.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: Space Debris: What Can We Do With Unwanted Satellites?,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Truck Safety: The Safety of Longer Combination Vehicles Is Unknown. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1992)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Farooq, A.S.: Singing the blues: Indicators of mental illness among nursing home elderly, (2012)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, B.: Amid the Clutter Lies Some Clarity, (2017)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleFinance and Stochastics
AbbreviationFinance Stoch.
ISSN (print)0949-2984
ISSN (online)1432-1122
ScopeStatistics, Probability and Uncertainty
Statistics and Probability

Other styles