How to format your references using the Fermentation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Fermentation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Davis, R.J. Chemistry. All That Glitters Is Not Au0. Science 2003, 301, 926–927.
A journal article with 2 authors
Barton, G.M.; Medzhitov, R. Toll-like Receptor Signaling Pathways. Science 2003, 300, 1524–1525.
A journal article with 3 authors
Davies, J.P.; Chen, F.W.; Ioannou, Y.A. Transmembrane Molecular Pump Activity of Niemann-Pick C1 Protein. Science 2000, 290, 2295–2298.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Cheng, Y.; Austin, S.C.; Rocca, B.; Koller, B.H.; Coffman, T.M.; Grosser, T.; Lawson, J.A.; FitzGerald, G.A. Role of Prostacyclin in the Cardiovascular Response to Thromboxane A2. Science 2002, 296, 539–541.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kerzner, H.; Belack, C. Managing Complex Projects; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2010; ISBN 9780470927977.
An edited book
Cell Separation: Fundamentals, Analytical and Preparative Methods; Kumar, A., Galaev, I.Y., Mattiasson, B., Eds.; Advances in Biochemical Engineering/Biotechnology; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2007; Vol. 106; ISBN 9783540752622.
A chapter in an edited book
Kalamkarov, A.L.; Challagulla, K.S. Effective Properties of Composite Materials, Reinforced Structures and Smart Composites: Asymptotic Homogenization Approach. In Effective Properties of Heterogeneous Materials; Kachanov, M., Sevostianov, I., Eds.; Solid Mechanics and Its Applications; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2013; pp. 283–363 ISBN 9789400757141.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Fermentation.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Watch Bill Nye Read Out Some Of The Hilarious Mean Tweets Sent To Him Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Information Technology: OMB Can More Effectively Use Its Investment Reviews; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2005;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Green, B. Bullying of Individuals with Disabilities on a College Campus: A Qualitative Study. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University: Washington, DC, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Folkers, K.M. The Millennials’ S.T.D.? New York Times 2016, SR5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleFermentation
ISSN (online)2311-5637

Other styles