How to format your references using the Fermentation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Fermentation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Harden, N. Cell Biology. Of Grainy Heads and Broken Skins. Science 2005, 308, 364–365.
A journal article with 2 authors
Azzalin, C.M.; Lingner, J. Cell Biology. Telomere Wedding Ends in Divorce. Science 2004, 304, 60–62.
A journal article with 3 authors
Narayan, V.; Ramaswamy, S.; Menon, N. Long-Lived Giant Number Fluctuations in a Swarming Granular Nematic. Science 2007, 317, 105–108.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Jia, Y.; Cheng, C.; Vázquez de Aldana, J.R.; Castillo, G.R.; Rabes, B. del R.; Tan, Y.; Jaque, D.; Chen, F. Monolithic Crystalline Cladding Microstructures for Efficient Light Guiding and Beam Manipulation in Passive and Active Regimes. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 5988.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Biswas, S.; Ray, P.; Chakrabarti, B.K. Statistical Physics of Fracture, Breakdown, and Earthquake; Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA: Weinheim, Germany, 2015; ISBN 9783527672646.
An edited book
Health Issues Confronting Minority Men Who Have Sex with Men; Loue, S., Ed.; Springer: New York, NY, 2008; ISBN 9780387745381.
A chapter in an edited book
Buckland, S.T.; Rexstad, E.A.; Marques, T.A.; Oedekoven, C.S. Field Methods and Data Issues. In Distance Sampling: Methods and Applications; Rexstad, E.A., Marques, T.A., Oedekoven, C.S., Eds.; Methods in Statistical Ecology; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2015; pp. 35–49 ISBN 9783319192185.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Fermentation.

Blog post
Luntz, S. New Paper Solves Black Hole Paradox, Suggests They Don’t Erase Information After All Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Special Education: Clearer Guidance Would Enhance Implementation of Federal Disciplinary Provisions; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2003;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Huger Marsh, D.P. Perspectives of Disciplinary Problems and Practices in Elementary Schools. Doctoral dissertation, Capella University: Minneapolis, MN, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lee, L. Almost Ready to Fly. New York Times 2012, D3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleFermentation
ISSN (online)2311-5637

Other styles