How to format your references using the Fermentation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Fermentation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lawler, A. LIVING WITH A STAR: Controversy Flares Up Over NASA Solar Project. Science 2000, 289, 528–530.
A journal article with 2 authors
Karplus, P.A.; Diederichs, K. Linking crystallographic model and data quality. Science 2012, 336, 1030–1033.
A journal article with 3 authors
Weiner, S.; Sagi, I.; Addadi, L. Structural biology. Choosing the crystallization path less traveled. Science 2005, 309, 1027–1028.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Tzedakis, P.C.; Roucoux, K.H.; de Abreu, L.; Shackleton, N.J. The duration of forest stages in southern Europe and interglacial climate variability. Science 2004, 306, 2231–2235.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Jayaweera, S.K. Signal Processing for Cognitive Radios; John Wiley & Sons, Inc: Hoboken, NJ, 2014; ISBN 9781118824818.
An edited book
Hypertension and Hormone Mechanisms; Carey, R.M., Ed.; Contemporary Endocrinology; Humana Press: Totowa, NJ, 2007; ISBN 9781588294081.
A chapter in an edited book
García-Colín, L.S.; Dagdug, L. Solution of the Integral Equations. In The Kinetic Theory of a Dilute Ionized Plasma; Dagdug, L., Ed.; Springer Series on Atomic, Optical, and Plasma Physics; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2009; pp. 51–59 ISBN 9781402093296.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Fermentation.

Blog post
Andrew, E. African Scientists A Step Closer To Testing For TB In A Matter Of Minutes Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Information Technology: FBI Is Taking Steps to Develop an Enterprise Architecture, but Much Remains to Be Accomplished; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2005;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sikorsky, A.A. Concentration enhancement and device fabrication for the improved performance of gradient elution moving boundary electrophoresis. Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park: College Park, MD, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, M. A Shoe With Meow. New York Times 2010, E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleFermentation
ISSN (online)2311-5637

Other styles