How to format your references using the Fermentation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Fermentation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nestler, E.J. Neurobiology. Total recall-the memory of addiction. Science 2001, 292, 2266–2267.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jellinek, A.M.; Bercovici, D. Seismic tremors and magma wagging during explosive volcanism. Nature 2011, 470, 522–525.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kurth, I.; Georgescu, R.E.; O’Donnell, M.E. A solution to release twisted DNA during chromosome replication by coupled DNA polymerases. Nature 2013, 496, 119–122.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Dhar, R.S.; Razavipour, S.G.; Dupont, E.; Xu, C.; Laframboise, S.; Wasilewski, Z.; Hu, Q.; Ban, D. Direct nanoscale imaging of evolving electric field domains in quantum structures. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 7183.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety; American Industrial Hygiene Association Continuous Monitoring for Hazardous Material Releases; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2009; ISBN 9780470925157.
An edited book
Computational Methods in Systems Biology: International Conference, CMSB 2006, Trento, Italy, October 18-19, 2006. Proceedings; Priami, C., Ed.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2006; Vol. 4210; ISBN 9783540461661.
A chapter in an edited book
Weiss, G.; Pomberger, G.; Beer, W.; Buchgeher, G.; Dorninger, B.; Pichler, J.; Prähofer, H.; Ramler, R.; Stallinger, F.; Weinreich, R. Software Engineering – Processes and Tools. In Hagenberg Research; Buchberger, B., Affenzeller, M., Ferscha, A., Haller, M., Jebelean, T., Klement, E.P., Paule, P., Pomberger, G., Schreiner, W., Stubenrauch, R., Wagner, R., Weiß, G., Windsteiger, W., Eds.; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009; pp. 157–235 ISBN 9783642021268.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Fermentation.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Live Webcast of Tonight’s ‘Super Harvest Moon’ Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Reagan National Airport: Capacity to Handle Additional Flights and Impact on Other Area Airports; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1999;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Peto, J. A defense of Donald Davidson’s dissolution to the problem of global skepticism. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, L. Offering Fresh Weapons Against Test Anxiety. New York Times 2008, LI6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleFermentation
ISSN (online)2311-5637

Other styles