How to format your references using the Fermentation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Fermentation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ramaswamy, S. Biochemistry. One Atom Makes All the Difference. Science 2011, 334, 914–915.
A journal article with 2 authors
Falk, A.; Szech, N. Morals and Markets. Science 2013, 340, 707–711.
A journal article with 3 authors
Elf, J.; Li, G.-W.; Xie, X.S. Probing Transcription Factor Dynamics at the Single-Molecule Level in a Living Cell. Science 2007, 316, 1191–1194.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Sjodt, M.; Brock, K.; Dobihal, G.; Rohs, P.D.A.; Green, A.G.; Hopf, T.A.; Meeske, A.J.; Srisuknimit, V.; Kahne, D.; Walker, S.; et al. Structure of the Peptidoglycan Polymerase RodA Resolved by Evolutionary Coupling Analysis. Nature 2018, 556, 118–121.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kölle, W. Wasseranalysen - Richtig Beurteilt; Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA: Weinheim, Germany, 2017; ISBN 9783527807871.
An edited book
Teacher Learning and Power in the Knowledge Society; Clark, R., Livingstone, D.W., Smaller, H., Eds.; The Knowledge Economy and Education; SensePublishers: Rotterdam, 2012; Vol. 5; ISBN 9789460919732.
A chapter in an edited book
Nakahara, J.; Sepehrdad, P.; Zhang, B.; Wang, M. Linear (Hull) and Algebraic Cryptanalysis of the Block Cipher PRESENT. In Cryptology and Network Security: 8th International Conference, CANS 2009, Kanazawa, Japan, December 12-14, 2009. Proceedings; Garay, J.A., Miyaji, A., Otsuka, A., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009; pp. 58–75 ISBN 9783642104329.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Fermentation.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. New Study: Salmonella Thrives In Salad Bags Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Federal Judicial Space Follow-Up; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1994;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tanner-Anderson, S.L. “The Road Less Traveled”: The Female’s Journey to the State Superintendency. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University: Washington, DC, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, M. Olympic Leaders Mend U.S. Ties With the I.O.C. New York Times 2013, D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleFermentation
ISSN (online)2311-5637

Other styles