How to format your references using the Acta Crystallographica Section D: Biological Crystallography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Acta Crystallographica Section D: Biological Crystallography. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Trkola, A. (2014). Nature 514, 442–443.
A journal article with 2 authors
Srivastava, D. & Ivey, K. N. (2006). Nature 441, 1097–1099.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chen, W., Zhang, S. & Long, X. (2013). Sci. Rep. 3, 1992.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Yamashita, A., Liu, S., Woltjen, K., Thomas, B., Meng, G., Hotta, A., Takahashi, K., Ellis, J., Yamanaka, S. & Rancourt, D. E. (2013). Sci. Rep. 3, 1978.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Soustelle, M. (2016). Phase Transformations Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Black, A. P. (2005). ECOOP 2005 - Object-Oriented Programming: 19th European Conference, Glasgow, UK, July 25-29, 2005. Proceedings Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Kahraman, C. & Kaya, İ. (2008). Vol. Fuzzy Engineering Economics with Applications, edited by C. Kahraman. pp. 71–81. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Acta Crystallographica Section D: Biological Crystallography.

Blog post
Evans, K. (2017). IFLScience,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1997). Strategic Mobility: Late Deliveries of Large, Medium Speed Roll-On/Roll-Off Ships Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Garcia, M. (2009). Perception of Latino students by teachers and counselors in the educational system. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shpigel, B. (2016). New York Times B10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Trkola, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Trkola, 2014; Srivastava & Ivey, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Srivastava & Ivey, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Yamashita et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleActa Crystallographica Section D: Biological Crystallography
AbbreviationActa Crystallogr. D Biol. Crystallogr.
ISSN (online)1399-0047
ScopeStructural Biology
General Medicine

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