How to format your references using the Acta Crystallographica Section D: Biological Crystallography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Acta Crystallographica Section D: Biological Crystallography. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P. (2002). Nature 418, 3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Arokiaraj, M. C. & Palacios, I. F. (2014). Sci. Rep. 4, 3630.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kuba, H., Ishii, T. M. & Ohmori, H. (2006). Nature 444, 1069–1072.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Percec, I., Plenge, R. M., Nadeau, J. H., Bartolomei, M. S. & Willard, H. F. (2002). Science 296, 1136–1139.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rehder, D. (2010). Chemistry in Space Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Tay, L. Y. & Lim, C. P. (2013). Creating Holistic Technology-Enhanced Learning Experiences: Tales from a Future School in Singapore Rotterdam: SensePublishers.
A chapter in an edited book
Kim, D. J. & Zhang, D. (2011). Vol. Exploring the Grand Challenges for Next Generation E-Business: 8th Workshop on E-Business, WEB 2009, Phoenix, AZ, USA, December 15, 2009, Revised Selected Papers, edited by R. Sharman, H. R. Rao & T. S. Raghu. pp. 30–43. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Acta Crystallographica Section D: Biological Crystallography.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015). IFLScience,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2003). Telecommunications: Comprehensive Review of U.S. Spectrum Management with Broad Stakeholder Involvement Is Needed Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bennett, R. J. (2016). Exploring the effects of parasocial connection on relaxation exercise persistence in women. Doctoral dissertation. Capella University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kinsley, M. (2017). New York Times SR2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Smaglik, 2002; Arokiaraj & Palacios, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Arokiaraj & Palacios, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Percec et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleActa Crystallographica Section D: Biological Crystallography
AbbreviationActa Crystallogr. D Biol. Crystallogr.
ISSN (online)1399-0047
ScopeStructural Biology
General Medicine

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