How to format your references using the BMC Ophthalmology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMC Ophthalmology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Diamond J. Unwritten knowledge. Nature. 2001;410:521.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Simner J, Ward J. Synaesthesia: the taste of words on the tip of the tongue. Nature. 2006;444:438.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Behn MD, Hirth G, Kelemen PB. Trench-parallel anisotropy produced by foundering of arc lower crust. Science. 2007;317:108–11.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. O’Hara KM, Hemmer SL, Gehm ME, Granade SR, Thomas JE. Observation of a strongly interacting degenerate Fermi gas of atoms. Science. 2002;298:2179–82.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Kurimoto N, Fielding DIK, Musani AI. Endobronchial Ultrasonography. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2011.
An edited book
1. Benettin G. Hamiltonian Dynamics. Theory and Applications: Lectures given at the C.I.M.E.-E.M.S. Summer School held in Cetraro, Italy, July 1-10, 1999. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Agneessens F, Koskinen J. Modeling Individual Outcomes Using a Multilevel Social Influence (MSI) Model: Individual Versus Team Effects of Trust on Job Satisfaction in an Organisational Context. In: Lazega E, Snijders TAB, editors. Multilevel Network Analysis for the Social Sciences: Theory, Methods and Applications. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 81–105.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMC Ophthalmology.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. How To Run A Marathon (Hint: It’s All In The Mind). IFLScience. 2016. https://www.iflscience.com/brain/how-run-marathon-hint-it-s-all-mind-0/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Business Continuity and Contingency Planning (Supersedes AIMD-10.1.19). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Teo YM. Acculturation Levels, Social Media Usage and Their Relationship with Dietary Patterns among Asian American Young Adults. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Greenhouse L. His Hipness, John G. Roberts. New York Times. 2006;:WK7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMC Ophthalmology
AbbreviationBMC Ophthalmol.
ISSN (online)1471-2415
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Ophthalmology

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