How to format your references using the Expert Systems With Applications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Expert Systems With Applications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lazcano, A. (2005). Global voices of science. Teaching evolution in Mexico: preaching to the choir. Science (New York, N.Y.), 310(5749), 787–789.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ptashne, M., & Gann, A. (2003). Signal transduction. Imposing specificity on kinases. Science (New York, N.Y.), 299(5609), 1025–1027.
A journal article with 3 authors
Moser, D. E., Flowers, R. M., & Hart, R. J. (2001). Birth of the Kaapvaal tectosphere 3.08 billion years ago. Science (New York, N.Y.), 291(5503), 465–468.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Stuchell-Brereton, M. D., Skalicky, J. J., Kieffer, C., Karren, M. A., Ghaffarian, S., & Sundquist, W. I. (2007). ESCRT-III recognition by VPS4 ATPases. Nature, 449(7163), 740–744.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hahn, A., Behle, B., Lischewski, D., & Rein, W. (2002). Produktionstechnische Praxis. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Sun, M., Zhang, M., Lin, D., & Wang, H. (Eds.). (2013). Chinese Computational Linguistics and Natural Language Processing Based on Naturally Annotated Big Data: 12th China National Conference, CCL 2013 and First International Symposium, NLP-NABD 2013, Suzhou, China, October 10-12, 2013. Proceedings (Vol. 8202). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Toranzo, C. S., Errecalde, M., & Ferretti, E. (2014). On the Use of Agreement Technologies for Multi-criteria Decision Making within a BDI Agent. In A. L. C. Bazzan & K. Pichara (Eds.), Advances in Artificial Intelligence -- IBERAMIA 2014: 14th Ibero-American Conference on AI, Santiago de Chile, Chile, November 24-27, 2014, Proceedings (pp. 54–65). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Expert Systems With Applications.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2014, March 21). Star Survives Supernova. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1981). Making Evaluations Relevant to Congressional Needs (116233). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Huang, J. (2013). Multispectral Imaging of Skin Oxygenation [Doctoral dissertation]. Ohio State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
GEORGE GENE GUSTINES; Compiled by DAVE ITZKOFF. (2010, March 3). Comic Book Writer Accused of Plagiarism. New York Times, C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lazcano, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Lazcano, 2005; Ptashne & Gann, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ptashne & Gann, 2003)
  • Three authors: (Moser et al., 2001)
  • 6 or more authors: (Stuchell-Brereton et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleExpert Systems With Applications
AbbreviationExpert Syst. Appl.
ISSN (print)0957-4174
ScopeArtificial Intelligence
Computer Science Applications
General Engineering

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