How to format your references using the Expert Systems With Applications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Expert Systems With Applications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Xu, P. (2005). Eppendorf 2005 winner. A Drosophila OBP required for pheromone signaling. Science (New York, N.Y.), 310(5749), 798–799.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jakse, N., & Pasturel, A. (2013). Liquid Aluminum: atomic diffusion and viscosity from ab initio molecular dynamics. Scientific Reports, 3, 3135.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jarillo-Herrero, P., van Dam, J. A., & Kouwenhoven, L. P. (2006). Quantum supercurrent transistors in carbon nanotubes. Nature, 439(7079), 953–956.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Bragg, A. E., Verlet, J. R. R., Kammrath, A., Cheshnovsky, O., & Neumark, D. M. (2004). Hydrated electron dynamics: from clusters to bulk. Science (New York, N.Y.), 306(5696), 669–671.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Vegh, A. (2010). Web Development with the Mac®. Wiley Publishing, Inc.
An edited book
Curaj, A., Scott, P., Vlasceanu, L., & Wilson, L. (Eds.). (2012). European Higher Education at the Crossroads: Between the Bologna Process and National Reforms. Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Zaccone, A., & Melzi, C. (2010). The PRIM (Integrated Regional Programme for Risk Assessment and Management) by Lombardy Region. In A. Brugnoli (Ed.), Dangerous Materials: Control, Risk Prevention and Crisis Management: From New Global Threats to New Global Responses: A Picture of Transition (pp. 71–77). Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Expert Systems With Applications.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2014, July 21). Interior of Giant Planets Reconstructed By Blasting Diamonds With Lasers. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2014). Advanced Imaging Technology: TSA Needs Additional Information before Procuring Next-Generation Systems (GAO-14-357). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tabone, B. (2013). Knowledge and awareness of the Female Athlete Triad among female collegiate athletes at California State University, Long Beach [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. (2007, November 6). Before the Court: Are Munis Like Milk, or Garbage? New York Times, C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Xu, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Jakse & Pasturel, 2013; Xu, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jakse & Pasturel, 2013)
  • Three authors: (Jarillo-Herrero et al., 2006)
  • 6 or more authors: (Bragg et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleExpert Systems With Applications
AbbreviationExpert Syst. Appl.
ISSN (print)0957-4174
ScopeArtificial Intelligence
Computer Science Applications
General Engineering

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