How to format your references using the Expert Systems With Applications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Expert Systems With Applications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kasting, J. F. (2001). Earth history. The rise of atmospheric oxygen. Science (New York, N.Y.), 293(5531), 819–820.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bramwell, S. T., & Gingras, M. J. (2001). Spin ice state in frustrated magnetic pyrochlore materials. Science (New York, N.Y.), 294(5546), 1495–1501.
A journal article with 3 authors
Koo, B., Nottenburg, C., & Pardey, P. G. (2004). Intellectual property. Plants and intellectual property: an international appraisal. Science (New York, N.Y.), 306(5700), 1295–1297.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Kimura, Y., Inoue, T., Yin, F., & Tsuzaki, K. (2008). Inverse temperature dependence of toughness in an ultrafine grain-structure steel. Science (New York, N.Y.), 320(5879), 1057–1060.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cardon, A., & Itmi, M. (2016). New Autonomous Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Spector, J. M., Merrill, M. D., Elen, J., & Bishop, M. J. (Eds.). (2014). Handbook of Research on Educational Communications and Technology (4th ed. 2014). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Pinsent, A. (2013). Aquinas and the Second Person in the Formation of Virtues. In T. B. Mooney & M. Nowacki (Eds.), Aquinas, Education and the East (pp. 47–71). Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Expert Systems With Applications.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2016, April 25). Watch A River Full Of Methane Get Set On Fire. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1990). John P. Abbadessa, 1947-1962 (OP-18-OH). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Yoon, Y. (2010). Nano-tribology of discrete track recording media [Doctoral dissertation]. University of California San Diego.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wakin, D. J., & Walsh, M. W. (2011, December 1). Other Orchestras Fear Paying Price for Philadelphia Pension Crisis. New York Times, C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kasting, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Bramwell & Gingras, 2001; Kasting, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bramwell & Gingras, 2001)
  • Three authors: (Koo et al., 2004)
  • 6 or more authors: (Kimura et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleExpert Systems With Applications
AbbreviationExpert Syst. Appl.
ISSN (print)0957-4174
ScopeArtificial Intelligence
Computer Science Applications
General Engineering

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