How to format your references using the Expert Systems With Applications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Expert Systems With Applications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kahan, D. (2010). Fixing the communications failure. Nature, 463(7279), 296–297.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gibbs, R. A., & Nelson, D. L. (2003). Human genetics. Primate shadow play. Science (New York, N.Y.), 299(5611), 1331–1333.
A journal article with 3 authors
Alexandre, C., Baena-Lopez, A., & Vincent, J.-P. (2014). Patterning and growth control by membrane-tethered Wingless. Nature, 505(7482), 180–185.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Saleh, M.-C., Tassetto, M., van Rij, R. P., Goic, B., Gausson, V., Berry, B., Jacquier, C., Antoniewski, C., & Andino, R. (2009). Antiviral immunity in Drosophila requires systemic RNA interference spread. Nature, 458(7236), 346–350.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lader, E. W. (2013). Field Guide to the Arrhythmias. John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
An edited book
Kwan, R., Fong, J., Kwok, L.-F., & Lam, J. (Eds.). (2011). Hybrid Learning: 4th International Conference, ICHL 2011, Hong Kong, China, August 10-12, 2011. Proceedings (Vol. 6837). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
De Petro, P., Battiston, B., Matteotti, R., Petraz, M., Molino, D., & Mattu, R. (2016). Gomito. In C. Faletti (Ed.), Traumatologia scheletrica: Imaging integrato clinico-radiologico (pp. 99–147). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Expert Systems With Applications.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2014, May 9). Electronic Pollution Disorients Migratory Robins. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2008). Inspectors General: Actions Needed to Improve Audit Coverage of NASA (GAO-09-88). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Clater, M. J. (2009). Interposed between God and man: Agency in the Requiems of Berlioz and Fauré [Doctoral dissertation]. Indiana University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. (2006, July 9). His Hipness, John G. Roberts. New York Times, WK7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kahan, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Gibbs & Nelson, 2003; Kahan, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gibbs & Nelson, 2003)
  • Three authors: (Alexandre et al., 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Saleh et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleExpert Systems With Applications
AbbreviationExpert Syst. Appl.
ISSN (print)0957-4174
ScopeArtificial Intelligence
Computer Science Applications
General Engineering

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