How to format your references using the Expert Systems With Applications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Expert Systems With Applications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Edwards, P. N. (2004). Beyond the ivory tower. “A vast machine”: standards as social technology. Science (New York, N.Y.), 304(5672), 827–828.
A journal article with 2 authors
Brosnan, S. F., & De Waal, F. B. M. (2003). Monkeys reject unequal pay. Nature, 425(6955), 297–299.
A journal article with 3 authors
Finkelstein, I. J., Visnapuu, M.-L., & Greene, E. C. (2010). Single-molecule imaging reveals mechanisms of protein disruption by a DNA translocase. Nature, 468(7326), 983–987.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Yang, Y., Huang, F., Chen, C.-F., Xia, M., Cai, Q., Qian, F.-J., & Xiang, J. (2013). Control self-assembly of hydrazide-based cyclic hexamers: in or out. Scientific Reports, 3, 1059.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Doerfler, W. (2007). Foreign DNA in Mammalian Systems. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH.
An edited book
Miesenberger, K., Karshmer, A., Penaz, P., & Zagler, W. (Eds.). (2012). Computers Helping People with Special Needs: 13th International Conference, ICCHP 2012, Linz, Austria, July 11-13, 2012, Proceedings, Part I (Vol. 7382). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Bildirici, I. O., Ustun, A., Ulugtekin, N., Selvi, H. Z., Abbak, R. A., Bugdayci, I., & Dogru, A. O. (2009). Compilation of Digital Elevation Model for Turkey in 3-Arc-Second Resolution by Using SRTM Data Supported with Local Elevation Data. In G. Gartner & F. Ortag (Eds.), Cartography in Central and Eastern Europe: CEE 2009 (pp. 63–76). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Expert Systems With Applications.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, August 27). Lung Capacity Of A Smoker Vs Non-Smoker. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2006). Space Acquisitions: DOD Needs to Take More Action to Address Unrealistic Initial Cost Estimates of Space Systems (No. GAO-07-96). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Harris, R. (2011). Stone circles and sandplay therapy: The language of symbols (Doctoral dissertation). Pacifica Graduate Institute, Carpinteria, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Marx, L. (2015, March 8). A Modern Marriage With Multiple Parts. New York Times, p. ST17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Edwards, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Brosnan & De Waal, 2003; Edwards, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Brosnan & De Waal, 2003)
  • Three authors: (Finkelstein, Visnapuu, & Greene, 2010)
  • 6 or more authors: (Yang et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleExpert Systems With Applications
AbbreviationExpert Syst. Appl.
ISSN (print)0957-4174
ScopeArtificial Intelligence
Computer Science Applications
General Engineering

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