How to format your references using the Expert Systems With Applications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Expert Systems With Applications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Forde, A. (2005). The class of 2005. Germany: deciphering cellular processes. Science (New York, N.Y.), 310(5747), 519–520.
A journal article with 2 authors
Holland, M. D., & Hastings, A. (2008). Strong effect of dispersal network structure on ecological dynamics. Nature, 456(7223), 792–794.
A journal article with 3 authors
Grigoryan, G., Reinke, A. W., & Keating, A. E. (2009). Design of protein-interaction specificity gives selective bZIP-binding peptides. Nature, 458(7240), 859–864.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Xing, X., Yu, Y., Li, S., & Huang, X. (2013). How do spin waves pass through a bend? Scientific Reports, 3, 2958.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sóbester, A., & Forrester, A. I. J. (2014). Aircraft Aerodynamic Design. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Kurosu, M. (Ed.). (2013). Human-Computer Interaction. Applications and Services: 15th International Conference, HCI International 2013, Las Vegas, NV, USA, July 21-26, 2013, Proceedings, Part II (Vol. 8005). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Perälä, P. H. J., Paananen, J. P., Mukhopadhyay, M., & Laulajainen, J.-P. (2011). A Novel Testbed for P2P Networks. In T. Magedanz, A. Gavras, N. H. Thanh, & J. S. Chase (Eds.), Testbeds and Research Infrastructures. Development of Networks and Communities: 6th International ICST Conference, TridentCom 2010, Berlin, Germany, May 18-20, 2010, Revised Selected Papers (pp. 69–83). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Expert Systems With Applications.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, April 16). Cosmos For Creationists. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2012). Highway Projects: Some Federal and State Practices to Expedite Completion Show Promise (GAO-12-593). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Johnson, A. (2015). Instructional Practices in Physical Education Programs for Students with Disabilities [Doctoral dissertation]. Northcentral University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shear, M. D. (2017, September 5). Democratic Coalition Plans Attacks on G.O.P. Over Health Care Law. New York Times, A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Forde, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Forde, 2005; Holland & Hastings, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Holland & Hastings, 2008)
  • Three authors: (Grigoryan et al., 2009)
  • 6 or more authors: (Xing et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleExpert Systems With Applications
AbbreviationExpert Syst. Appl.
ISSN (print)0957-4174
ScopeArtificial Intelligence
Computer Science Applications
General Engineering

Other styles