How to format your references using the Experimental Astronomy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Experimental Astronomy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Evans, D.A.D.: Proterozoic low orbital obliquity and axial-dipolar geomagnetic field from evaporite palaeolatitudes. Nature. 444, 51–55 (2006)
A journal article with 2 authors
Heckman, T.M., Kauffmann, G.: The coevolution of galaxies and supermassive black holes: a local perspective. Science. 333, 182–185 (2011)
A journal article with 3 authors
Sanderson, M.J., McMahon, M.M., Steel, M.: Terraces in phylogenetic tree space. Science. 333, 448–450 (2011)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Sun, C., Bufford, D., Chen, Y., Kirk, M.A., Wang, Y.Q., Li, M., Wang, H., Maloy, S.A., Zhang, X.: In situ study of defect migration kinetics in nanoporous Ag with enhanced radiation tolerance. Sci. Rep. 4, 3737 (2014)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Daïan, J.-F.: Equilibrium and Transfer in Porous Media 2. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK (2014)
An edited book
Gursky, S.L., Nekaris, K.A.I. eds: Primate Anti-Predator Strategies. Springer US, Boston, MA (2007)
A chapter in an edited book
Devaraj, P., Yugesh, S.: Reconstruction of Multiply Generated Splines from Local Average Samples. In: Agrawal, P.N., Mohapatra, R.N., Singh, U., and Srivastava, H.M. (eds.) Mathematical Analysis and its Applications: Roorkee, India, December 2014. pp. 63–72. Springer India, New Delhi (2015)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Experimental Astronomy.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: Domestic Cat Or Lost Lynx? On The Trail Of The ‘Paris Tiger,’


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Federal Support for Research and Education: Costs and Benefits. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1969)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Newcomb, S.: Reliability of the CVI range: A functional vision assessment for children with cortical visual impairment, (2009)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kwai, I.: Citizenship Costs Senator In Australia Her Position, (2017)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleExperimental Astronomy
AbbreviationExp. Astron.
ISSN (print)0922-6435
ISSN (online)1572-9508
ScopeSpace and Planetary Science
Astronomy and Astrophysics

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