How to format your references using the Experimental Astronomy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Experimental Astronomy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kealey, T.: More is less. Economists and governments lag decades behind Derek Price’s thinking. Nature. 405, 279 (2000)
A journal article with 2 authors
Lau, W.C.Y., Rubinstein, J.L.: Subnanometre-resolution structure of the intact Thermus thermophilus H+-driven ATP synthase. Nature. 481, 214–218 (2011)
A journal article with 3 authors
Deal, R.B., Henikoff, J.G., Henikoff, S.: Genome-wide kinetics of nucleosome turnover determined by metabolic labeling of histones. Science. 328, 1161–1164 (2010)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Su, H.T., Hsu, R.R., Chen, A.B., Wang, Y.C., Hsiao, W.S., Lai, W.C., Lee, L.C., Sato, M., Fukunishi, H.: Gigantic jets between a thundercloud and the ionosphere. Nature. 423, 974–976 (2003)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Duchon, C., Hale, R.: Time Series Analysis in Meteorology and Climatology. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK (2012)
An edited book
Vega, W.A., Markides, K.S., Angel, J.L., Torres-Gil, F.M. eds: Challenges of Latino Aging in the Americas. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2015)
A chapter in an edited book
Iacucci, I., Saba, L., Anzidei, M.: Plaque Imaging. In: Catalano, C., Anzidei, M., and Napoli, A. (eds.) Cardiovascular CT and MR Imaging: From Technique to Clinical Interpretation. pp. 55–70. Springer, Milano (2013)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Experimental Astronomy.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: Hubble Space Telescope’s Chief Scientist On What It Took To Get The Project Off The Ground,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Protest Against Award of Data Processing and Mailing Contract. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1973)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nasrollahzadeh, Y.: Support group for caregivers of older adults affected by dementia: A grant proposal project, (2013)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Couturier, K.: The Agony, and Occasional Rewards, of the Overbooked Flight, (2017)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleExperimental Astronomy
AbbreviationExp. Astron.
ISSN (print)0922-6435
ISSN (online)1572-9508
ScopeSpace and Planetary Science
Astronomy and Astrophysics

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