How to format your references using the Experimental Astronomy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Experimental Astronomy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Atwood, H.L.: Neuroscience. Gatekeeper at the synapse. Science. 312, 1008–1009 (2006)
A journal article with 2 authors
Rohde, R.A., Muller, R.A.: Cycles in fossil diversity. Nature. 434, 208–210 (2005)
A journal article with 3 authors
Chen, J., Carlson, B.E., Del Genio, A.D.: Evidence for strengthening of the tropical general circulation in the 1990s. Science. 295, 838–841 (2002)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Achermann, M., Petruska, M.A., Kos, S., Smith, D.L., Koleske, D.D., Klimov, V.I.: Energy-transfer pumping of semiconductor nanocrystals using an epitaxial quantum well. Nature. 429, 642–646 (2004)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Church, R.L., Murray, A.T.: Business Site Selection, Location Analysis and GIS. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2008)
An edited book
Pitilakis, K.D. ed: Earthquake Geotechnical Engineering: 4th International Conference on Earthquake Geotechnical Engineering-Invited Lectures. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht (2007)
A chapter in an edited book
Fliss, D.M., Gil, Z.: Open Surgical Approaches to the Paranasal Sinuses. In: Gil, Z. (ed.) Atlas of Surgical Approaches to Paranasal Sinuses and the Skull Base. pp. 109–137. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2016)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Experimental Astronomy.

Blog post
Hale, T.: Watch Two Of Australia’s Most Infamous Snakes Go Head-To-Head In A Battle To The Death,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Update of Economic Analysis of Impact Aid Program Reflecting the Educational Amendments of 1974. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1978)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Basik, N.: An evolutionary approach to intuitionism and moral realism, (2008)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M.W.: Last Mile May Be Hardest in Former A.I.G. Chief’s Legal Journey, (2010)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleExperimental Astronomy
AbbreviationExp. Astron.
ISSN (print)0922-6435
ISSN (online)1572-9508
ScopeSpace and Planetary Science
Astronomy and Astrophysics

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