How to format your references using the Experimental Astronomy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Experimental Astronomy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Boswell, R.: Engineering. Is gas hydrate energy within reach? Science. 325, 957–958 (2009)
A journal article with 2 authors
Law, K.L., Thompson, R.C.: Oceans. Microplastics in the seas. Science. 345, 144–145 (2014)
A journal article with 3 authors
von Melchner, L., Pallas, S.L., Sur, M.: Visual behaviour mediated by retinal projections directed to the auditory pathway. Nature. 404, 871–876 (2000)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Zhang, Z., Gong, X., Zhang, S., Yang, H., Shi, Y., Yang, C., Zhang, X., Xiong, X., Fang, X., Ouyang, Z.: Observation of replacement of carbon in benzene with nitrogen in a low-temperature plasma. Sci. Rep. 3, 3481 (2013)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wartenberg, T.E.: A Sneetch Is a Sneetch and Other Philosophical Discoveries. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK (2013)
An edited book
Perdew, G.H., Heuvel, J.P.V., Peters, J.M. eds: Regulation of Gene Expression: Molecular Mechanisms. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ (2007)
A chapter in an edited book
Cadossi, R.: From Academy to Industry: Translational Research in Biophysics. In: Jarm, T., Kramar, P., and Zupanic, A. (eds.) 11th Mediterranean Conference on Medical and Biomedical Engineering and Computing 2007: MEDICON 2007, 26-30 June 2007, Ljubljana, Slovenia. pp. 10–13. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2007)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Experimental Astronomy.

Blog post
Fang, J.: Humpback Whales Are Three Separate Subspecies,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Highway Safety: Motorcycle Helmet Laws Save Lives and Reduce Costs to Society. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1991)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jozwiak, A.L.: Social work internship stipend program: A grant proposal, (2012)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J.: The Mets Believe Cabrera Could Be a Keeper, (2017)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleExperimental Astronomy
AbbreviationExp. Astron.
ISSN (print)0922-6435
ISSN (online)1572-9508
ScopeSpace and Planetary Science
Astronomy and Astrophysics

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