How to format your references using the Experimental Astronomy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Experimental Astronomy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Antonelli, A.: Biodiversity: Multiple origins of mountain life. Nature. 524, 300–301 (2015)
A journal article with 2 authors
Truffer, M., Fahnestock, M.: Climate change. Rethinking ice sheet time scales. Science. 315, 1508–1510 (2007)
A journal article with 3 authors
Burnham, D., Kitamura, C., Vollmer-Conna, U.: What’s new, pussycat? On talking to babies and animals. Science. 296, 1435 (2002)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Tsuno, S., Wang, X., Shomori, K., Hasegawa, J., Miura, N.: Hsa-miR-520d induces hepatoma cells to form normal liver tissues via a stemness-mediated process. Sci. Rep. 4, 3852 (2014)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Thatcher, A.: God, Sex, and Gender. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK (2011)
An edited book
Krempels, K.-H., Stocker, A. eds: Web Information Systems and Technologies: 9th International Conference, WEBIST 2013, Aachen, Germany, May 8-10, 2013, Revised Selected Papers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2014)
A chapter in an edited book
Middleton, H.: Sociological Perspectives of Coercion in Psychiatry. In: Völlm, B. and Nedopil, N. (eds.) The Use of Coercive Measures in Forensic Psychiatric Care: Legal, Ethical and Practical Challenges. pp. 49–68. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2016)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Experimental Astronomy.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: Watch A Man Deliver Three Baby Sharks From Dead Mother With Emergency C-Section,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Aviation Security: TSA Should Limit Future Funding for Behavior Detection Activities. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2013)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lopez, D.E.: Understanding and responding to culturally based spiritual phenomena among Latino clinicians, (2009)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams, J.: The Luckiest Man on Earth, (2017)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleExperimental Astronomy
AbbreviationExp. Astron.
ISSN (print)0922-6435
ISSN (online)1572-9508
ScopeSpace and Planetary Science
Astronomy and Astrophysics

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