How to format your references using the Experimental Astronomy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Experimental Astronomy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Maxmen, A.: Animal behaviour: Come mate with me. Nature. 526, S8-10 (2015)
A journal article with 2 authors
Miller, L.H., Greenwood, B.: Malaria--a shadow over Africa. Science. 298, 121–122 (2002)
A journal article with 3 authors
Barnham, K.W., Nelson, J., Stevens, R.A.: Did civil reactors supply plutonium for weapons? Nature. 407, 833–834 (2000)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Jin, C., Zhang, J., Li, X., Yang, X., Li, J., Liu, J.: Injectable 3-D fabrication of medical electronics at the target biological tissues. Sci. Rep. 3, 3442 (2013)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Morris, A.E., Geiger, G., Fine, H.A.: Handbook on Material and Energy Balance Calculations in Material Processing. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2011)
An edited book
Beunen, R., Van Assche, K., Duineveld, M. eds: Evolutionary Governance Theory: Theory and Applications. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2015)
A chapter in an edited book
Krause, W.K.H.: Sperm Functions Influenced by Immune Reactions. In: Krause, W.K.H. and Naz, R.K. (eds.) Immune Infertility: The Impact of Immune Reactions on Human Infertility. pp. 49–65. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2009)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Experimental Astronomy.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: Pluto Scientists Were Masters Of The Long Haul – Here’s How People Stick With Extremely Long-Term Goals,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: USDA Information Management: Extensive Improvements Needed in Managing Information Technology Investments. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1997)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Potter, R.H.: Diffusion of oxygen and lithium isotopes at a contact between the Bushveld Complex and metasedimentary rock: Implications for the timescale of Phepane Dome diapirism, (2009)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, M.: And on Kohl’s Agenda (or Was It Menu?), (1993)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleExperimental Astronomy
AbbreviationExp. Astron.
ISSN (print)0922-6435
ISSN (online)1572-9508
ScopeSpace and Planetary Science
Astronomy and Astrophysics

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