How to format your references using the Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Levermann A: Climate economics: make supply chains climate-smart. Nature 506: 27–29, 2014.
A journal article with 2 authors
Schirle NT and MacRae IJ: The crystal structure of human Argonaute2. Science 336: 1037–1040, 2012.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bradshaw D, Warren JE and Rosseinsky MJ: Reversible concerted ligand substitution at alternating metal sites in an extended solid. Science 315: 977–980, 2007.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Burlaga LF, Ness NF, Acuña MH, Lepping RP, Connerney JEP and Richardson JD: Magnetic fields at the solar wind termination shock. Nature 454: 75–77, 2008.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dickenson J, Freeman F, Mills CL, Sivasubramaniam S and Thode C: Molecular Pharmacology. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2012.
An edited book
Foresti S: Security and Trust Management: 11th International Workshop, STM 2015, Vienna, Austria, September 21-22, 2015, Proceedings. Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Andersen JV and Nowak A: Catching Animal Spirits: Using Complexity Theory to Detect Speculative Moments of the Markets. In: An Introduction to Socio-Finance. Nowak A (ed.) Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp93–120, 2013.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine.

Blog post
Luntz S: Traces Found Of Ancient Nearby Supernova. IFLScience, 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Commercial Aviation: Initial Small Community Air Service Development Projects Have Achieved Mixed Results. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2005.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Adaligil E: Electron transfer through self-assembled monolayers of alkaneselenols and alkanethiols on mercury electrode., 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky S: Iran: Nuclear Discussion With Visiting Russian. New York Times: A6, 2007.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleExperimental and Therapeutic Medicine
AbbreviationExp. Ther. Med.
ISSN (print)1792-0981
ISSN (online)1792-1015
ScopeCancer Research
Immunology and Microbiology (miscellaneous)
General Medicine

Other styles