How to format your references using the Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Konecky B: Palaeoclimate: Monsoon matters. Nature 517: 445–446, 2015.
A journal article with 2 authors
Girguis PR and Lee RW: Thermal preference and tolerance of alvinellids. Science 312: 231, 2006.
A journal article with 3 authors
Baluska F, Volkmann D and Barlow PW: Cell bodies in a cage. Nature 428: 371, 2004.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Beatty GL, Chiorean EG, Fishman MP, et al.: CD40 agonists alter tumor stroma and show efficacy against pancreatic carcinoma in mice and humans. Science 331: 1612–1616, 2011.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
O’Connor D: God, Evil, and Design. Blackwell Publishing Ltd., Oxford, UK, 2009.
An edited book
Gross T and Sayama H: Adaptive Networks: Theory, Models and Applications. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Zimmermann R, Marchal-Crespo L, Lambercy O, et al.: What’s Your Next Move? Detecting Movement Intention for Stroke Rehabilitation. In: Brain-Computer Interface Research: A State-of-the-Art Summary. Guger C, Allison BZ and Edlinger G (eds.) Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp23–37, 2013.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew E: Invasive “Walking” Fish That Suffocates Its Predators May Be Coming For Australia. IFLScience, 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: B-2 Bomber: Contract Structure and Selected Provisions. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1990.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Manley Lima MC: Commuter Students’ Social Integration: The Relationship Between Involvement in Extracurricular Activities and Sense of Belonging., 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Paulson M: Soho Rep to Return. New York Times: C3, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,1).
This sentence cites four references (1,1,1,1).

About the journal

Full journal titleExperimental and Therapeutic Medicine
AbbreviationExp. Ther. Med.
ISSN (print)1792-0981
ISSN (online)1792-1015
ScopeCancer Research
Immunology and Microbiology (miscellaneous)
General Medicine

Other styles