How to format your references using the BMC Health Services Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMC Health Services Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Ramirez AP. Applied physics. Oxide electronics emerge. Science. 2007;315:1377–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Hinrichs K-U, Inagaki F. Biogeochemistry. Downsizing the deep biosphere. Science. 2012;338:204–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Day JMD, Pearson DG, Taylor LA. Highly siderophile element constraints on accretion and differentiation of the Earth-Moon system. Science. 2007;315:217–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Bishop JKB, Wood TJ, Davis RE, Sherman JT. Robotic observations of enhanced carbon biomass and export at 55 degrees during SOFeX. Science. 2004;304:417–20.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Neuber A, Nuttall T. Diagnostic Techniques in Veterinary Dermatology. Oxford, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2017.
An edited book
1. Schmitt A. Towards Adaptive Spoken Dialog Systems. New York, NY: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Bertolo S. Information Overload and FP7 Funding Opportunities in 2009-10. In: Železný F, Lavrač N, editors. Inductive Logic Programming: 18th International Conference, ILP 2008 Prague, Czech Republic, September 10-12, 2008 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008. p. 5–5.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMC Health Services Research.

Blog post
1. Fang J. Multi-Cellular Life May Have Begun One Billion Years Earlier Than We Thought. IFLScience. 2016. https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/large-multi-celled-life-may-have-began-one-billion-years-earlier-we-thought/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Federal Aviation Administration: Agency Is Taking Steps to Plan for and Train Its Technician Workforce, but a More Strategic Approach Is Warranted. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2010.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Grant JA. Far-field noise from a rotor in a wind tunnel. Doctoral dissertation. Florida Atlantic University; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Blinder A. Dead Children, a Crumpled Bus and a Dazed City. New York Times. 2016;:A12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMC Health Services Research
AbbreviationBMC Health Serv. Res.
ISSN (online)1472-6963
ScopeHealth Policy

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