How to format your references using the BMC Health Services Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMC Health Services Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Hook J. Mathematics. Exploring musical space. Science. 2006;313:49–50.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Jin H-J, Kaplan DL. Mechanism of silk processing in insects and spiders. Nature. 2003;424:1057–61.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Kinoshita T, Wenger T, Weiss DS. A quantum Newton’s cradle. Nature. 2006;440:900–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Wingham DJ, Siegert MJ, Shepherd A, Muir AS. Rapid discharge connects Antarctic subglacial lakes. Nature. 2006;440:1033–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Leroy L. Eyestrain Reduction in Stereoscopy. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
1. Malyshkin V, editor. Parallel Computing Technologies: 10th International Conference, PaCT 2009, Novosibirsk, Russia, August 31-September 4, 2009. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Tsang SKM, Hui EK. Preventing and Combating School Bullying: A Conceptual Review. In: Lee TY, Shek DTL, Sun RCF, editors. Student Well-Being in Chinese Adolescents in Hong Kong: Theory, Intervention and Research. Singapore: Springer; 2015. p. 47–58.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMC Health Services Research.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Russian Company Announces It Is Planning To Build A Lunar Base. IFLScience. 2015. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Older Driver Safety: Knowledge Sharing Should Help States Prepare for Increase in Older Driver Population. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2007.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Courtney SJ. A Sea of Voices: An Alchemical Journey Through Dissociation. Doctoral dissertation. Pacifica Graduate Institute; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Feeney K. Old-Time Staples and Sloppy Joes. New York Times. 2007;:NJ6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMC Health Services Research
AbbreviationBMC Health Serv. Res.
ISSN (online)1472-6963
ScopeHealth Policy

Other styles