How to format your references using the European Sport Management Quarterly citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Sport Management Quarterly. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hilton, D. (2015). Donald Metcalf (1929-2014). Nature, 517(7536), 554.
A journal article with 2 authors
Nakar, E., & Piran, T. (2011). Detectable radio flares following gravitational waves from mergers of binary neutron stars. Nature, 478(7367), 82–84.
A journal article with 3 authors
Blin, A., Cissé, I., & Bockelmann, U. (2014). Electronic hybridization detection in microarray format and DNA genotyping. Scientific Reports, 4, 4194.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Kim, J., Oh, S. D., Kim, J. H., Shin, D. H., Kim, S., & Choi, S.-H. (2014). Graphene/Si-nanowire heterostructure molecular sensors. Scientific Reports, 4, 5384.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Krishnan, V. (2006). Probability and Random Processes. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Tong, C.-K. (Ed.). (2014). Chinese Business: Rethinking Guanxi and Trust in Chinese Business Networks. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Hay, G. J., & Castilla, G. (2008). Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis (GEOBIA): A new name for a new discipline. In T. Blaschke, S. Lang, & G. J. Hay (Eds.), Object-Based Image Analysis: Spatial Concepts for Knowledge-Driven Remote Sensing Applications (pp. 75–89). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Sport Management Quarterly.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2017, May 23). Risk Of Death Is Significantly Lower In Teaching Hospitals. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2003). Rail Safety and Security: Some Actions Already Taken to Enhance Rail Security, but Risk-based Plan Needed (GAO-03-435). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Betts, K. (2017). Ready, Steady, Putt! An Exhibition About the History of Miniature Golf in America [Doctoral dissertation]. George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shpigel, B. (2017, January 16). Steelers Prevail With Six Field Goals and One Relentless Running Back. New York Times, D2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hilton, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Hilton, 2015; Nakar & Piran, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Nakar & Piran, 2011)
  • Three authors: (Blin et al., 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Kim et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Sport Management Quarterly
AbbreviationEur. Sport Manag. Q.
ISSN (print)1618-4742
ISSN (online)1746-031X
ScopeStrategy and Management
Tourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management

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