How to format your references using the European Radiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Radiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rankin CH (2002) Neuroscience. A bite to remember. Science 296:1624–1625
A journal article with 2 authors
Chklovskii DB, Bargmann CI (2012) Neuroscience. The mind of a male? Science 337:416–417
A journal article with 3 authors
Colombo MG, Franzoni C, Rossi-Lamastra C (2015) ENTREPRENEURSHIP. Cash from the crowd. Science 348:1201–1202
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Li S, Ting NS, Zheng L, et al (2000) Functional link of BRCA1 and ataxia telangiectasia gene product in DNA damage response. Nature 406:210–215

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mallios WS (2010) Forecasting in Financial and Sports Gambling Markets. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Bosse T, Geller A, Jonker CM (2011) Multi-Agent-Based Simulation XI: International Workshop, MABS 2010, Toronto, Canada, May 11, 2010, Revised Selected Papers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Labandeira CC, Rodríguez-Tovar FJ, Uchman A (2016) The End-Cretaceous Extinction and Ecosystem Change. In: Mángano MG, Buatois LA (eds) The Trace-Fossil Record of Major Evolutionary Events: Volume 2: Mesozoic and Cenozoic. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 265–300

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Radiology.

Blog post
Luntz S (2016) “Lucy’s” Bones Indicate Part-Time Life In The Trees. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2016) Electronic Health Information: HHS Needs to Strengthen Security and Privacy Guidance and Oversight. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Seegmiller Renner A (2017) Empathy Development Through Role Modeling: A Qualitative Study of Instructor Experiences. Doctoral dissertation, Capella University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Belson K (2012) Olympic Ideal Takes Beating In Badminton. New York Times A1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Radiology
AbbreviationEur. Radiol.
ISSN (print)0938-7994
ISSN (online)1432-1084
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

Other styles