How to format your references using the European Radiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Radiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ueda K (2015) PHYSICS. To catch and smash charge on the hop. Science 350:740–741
A journal article with 2 authors
Kuncel NR, Hezlett SA (2007) Assessment. Standardized tests predict graduate students’ success. Science 315:1080–1081
A journal article with 3 authors
Rood RT, Bania TM, Balser DS (2002) Cosmology. The saga of 3He. Science 295:804–805
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Cowan T, Cai W, Purich A, et al (2013) Forcing of anthropogenic aerosols on temperature trends of the sub-thermocline southern Indian Ocean. Sci Rep 3:2245

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Goddard Blythe S (2012) Assessing Neuromotor Readiness for Learning. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Guillonneau B (2009) Laparoscopic Techniques in Uro-Oncology. Springer, London
A chapter in an edited book
Gryglewicz-Kacerka W, Kacerka J (2015) Analysis of the Effect of Chosen Initialization Parameters on Database Performance. In: Kozielski S, Mrozek D, Kasprowski P, et al (eds) Beyond Databases, Architectures and Structures: 11th International Conference, BDAS 2015, Ustroń, Poland, May 26-29, 2015, Proceedings. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 60–68

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Radiology.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) Watch chemicals turn into memories - the first time this has ever been recorded. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1976) Standard Budget Classifications--Proposed Functions and Subfunctions. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Danna RJ (2014) Learning-Assisted Market-Based Optimization for Truck Task Scheduling. Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly RKR, whose most recent book of poems is ’ ’Not This Island Music, Literature ’ ’ Teaches, writing at Bard College (1987) I AM NOT A HALFBACK. New York Times 79

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Radiology
AbbreviationEur. Radiol.
ISSN (print)0938-7994
ISSN (online)1432-1084
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

Other styles