How to format your references using the European Radiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Radiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Harte B (2011) Geochemistry. Diamond window into the lower mantle. Science 334:51–52
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Misra S, Froelich PN (2012) Lithium isotope history of Cenozoic seawater: changes in silicate weathering and reverse weathering. Science 335:818–823
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Foster SL, Hargreaves DC, Medzhitov R (2007) Gene-specific control of inflammation by TLR-induced chromatin modifications. Nature 447:972–978
A journal article with 5 or more authors
1.
Meibom KL, Blokesch M, Dolganov NA, et al (2005) Chitin induces natural competence in Vibrio cholerae. Science 310:1824–1827

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Neward T, Erickson AC, Crowell T, Minerich R (2010) Professional F# 2.0. Wiley Publishing, Inc., Indianapolis, IN, USA
An edited book
1.
Moritz EF (2006) The Engineering of Sport 6: Volume 2: Developments for Disciplines. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Schröder J (2011) The Concept and Means of Legal Interpretation in the 18th Century. In: Morigiwa Y, Stolleis M, Halperin J-L (eds) Interpretation of Law in the Age of Enlightenment: From the Rule of the King to the Rule of Law. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 91–105

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Radiology.

Blog post
1.
Andrew D (2015) New Footage Surfaces Of One Of The Largest Great White Sharks Ever Recorded. In: IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/deep-blue-20-foot-great-white-surfaces-again/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office (1990) Customs Automation: Weakness in Revenue Collection at John F. Kennedy International Airport. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Vas LT (2008) Orbis pictus: Intermedialität zwischen Berliner Stadtmalerei und literarischer Stadterfahrung dargestellt anhand der Werke von E.T.A. Hoffmann und Wilhelm Raabe. Doctoral dissertation, University of Cincinnati

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Walsh MW, Hurdle J (2013) Harrisburg Sees Path to Restructuring Debts Without Bankruptcy Filing. New York Times A12

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Radiology
AbbreviationEur. Radiol.
ISSN (print)0938-7994
ISSN (online)1432-1084
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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