How to format your references using the European Radiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Radiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gnecco E (2009) Nanotechnology: A gentle jackhammer. Nature 461:178–179
A journal article with 2 authors
Gurao NP, Suwas S (2014) Generalized scaling of misorientation angle distributions at meso-scale in deformed materials. Sci Rep 4:5641
A journal article with 3 authors
Gustafson JL, Lim D, Miller SJ (2010) Dynamic kinetic resolution of biaryl atropisomers via peptide-catalyzed asymmetric bromination. Science 328:1251–1255
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Koh LP, Dunn RR, Sodhi NS, et al (2004) Species coextinctions and the biodiversity crisis. Science 305:1632–1634

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Adhikari S (2013) Structural Dynamic Analysis with Generalized Damping Models. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, USA
An edited book
Chriss N (2010) Representation Theory and Complex Geometry, 1st ed. Birkhäuser, Boston, MA
A chapter in an edited book
Ahlert D, Schefer B (2013) The Risks of Admissible Price-Maintenance Systems for the Effectiveness of Inter-Brand Competition. In: Schefer B (ed) Vertical Price Coordination and Brand Care: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on the Prohibition of Resale Price Maintenance. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 33–45

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Radiology.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) First Vaccine For ’Mad-Cow’- Like Disease In Deer Shows Promise. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1973) Defaulted Loans Under the Guaranteed Student Loan Program. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gilman DG (2013) Comparative analysis of corporate culture in a multinational organization. Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin J (2017) For HBO, Storm Clouds Gather Over What Should Be a Smashing Summer. New York Times B1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Radiology
AbbreviationEur. Radiol.
ISSN (print)0938-7994
ISSN (online)1432-1084
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

Other styles