How to format your references using the European Journal of Plastic Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Journal of Plastic Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Willyard C (2013) Stem cells: bad seeds. Nature 498:S12-3
A journal article with 2 authors
Pörtner HO, Farrell AP (2008) Ecology. Physiology and climate change. Science 322:690–692
A journal article with 3 authors
Horsewill AJ, Jones NH, Caciuffo R (2001) Evidence for coherent proton tunneling in a hydrogen bond network. Science 291:100–103
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Forget F, Haberle RM, Montmessin F, et al (2006) Formation of glaciers on Mars by atmospheric precipitation at high obliquity. Science 311:368–371

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Park S, Guille-Escuret G (2017) Sociobiology vs Socioecology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Thorpe H, Olive R (2016) Women in Action Sport Cultures: Identity, Politics and Experience. Palgrave Macmillan UK, London
A chapter in an edited book
Whitchurch C (2015) The Rise of Third Space Professionals: Paradoxes and Dilemmas. In: Teichler U, Cummings WK (eds) Forming, Recruiting and Managing the Academic Profession. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 79–99

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Journal of Plastic Surgery.

Blog post
Hale T (2016) Footage Of This Huge Bipedal Animal Is Freaking People Out. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1986) ADP Equipment: Revised GSA Strategy for Microcomputer Purchases Can Improve Competition. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Teeter CM (2010) Characterizing the Spatial Density Functions of Neural Arbors. Doctoral dissertation, University of California San Diego

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly C (2009) Physical Therapy and the Camaraderie of Healing. New York Times D5

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Journal of Plastic Surgery
AbbreviationEur. J. Plast. Surg.
ISSN (print)0930-343X
ISSN (online)1435-0130

Other styles